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Cyberpsychology Research - University of Wolverhampton (CRUW)

CRUW seek to provide a forum to promote the academic and applied socio-psychological study of the impact of the Internet and emerging technologies (e.g. smartphones, virtual reality) on the everyday lives of different groups within society. 

We envisage the scope and range of possible areas of research in CRUW to be quite extensive. Current topics of interest include: online self-presentation, personality predictors of online behaviour, online gambling, cyber dating abuse, online self-disclosure, intellectual disability and online behaviour, email overload, online therapy, online support groups, video gaming behaviour and children's use of technology.

Suggestions from potential PhD students and research collaborators (from academia and practice), and enquiries from anyone interested in our work are welcome. For media enquiries please contact one of the group coordinators (Dr Joanne Lloyd or Dr Lisa Orchard) - contact details can be found by clicking on the names below. 

Meet the CRUW

  • Dr Lisa Orchard
    Personality differences online; online social networking and group processes; general cyberpsychology
  • Dr Joanne Lloyd 
    Online gambling; gaming; motivations; impulsivity; addiction; disorder
  • Dr Alison Attrill-Smith
    Online self and relationships; security and criminal online activity; online social interaction
  • Dr Manpal Bhogal
    Cyber dating abuse; electronic intrusion; mate retention; evolutionary cyberpsychology
  • Dr Chelsea Slater
    Cybercrime, online offences, board games
  • Dr Caroline Wesson 
    Image-based sexual abuse; intellectual disability and online behaviour; online self-presentation.
  • Dr Elaine Kasket (honorary professor): Psychology, death/dying, the digital environment, and privacy
  • Dr Titus Asbury (Lincoln Memorial University)
    Social networking sites for at-risk populations; technology & boundary management
  • Dr Josephine Chen-Wilson (University of Northampton)
    Online self-presentation; digital learning; adolescent’s wellbeing and digital engagement
  • Dr Dominic Conroy (University of East London)
    Digital detox; Internet-mediated communication; embodied digital communication; online identities/subjectivities; qualitative methods
  • Dr Azar Eftekhar (former CRUW PhD student)
    Personality prediction from online behaviour; visual self-presentation; photo-sharing motivations on social media; cross-cultural cyberpsychology
  • Dr Melanie Keep (The University of Sydney)
    Online social interactions and networking; online support; digital technology in health services.
  • Dr Grainne Kirwan (IADT, Dun Laoghaire)
    Forensic and health Psychology online; Psychology of Virtual Reality
  • Dr Joanne Mills (RPU/ICRD)
    Digital art; Audience engagement; Technology, culture and heritage 
  • Dr Joanne Meredith
    Online talk; conversation and discursive analysis of online interaction; political communication online
  • Professor Maria Uther (Birmingham City University)
    Use of mobile devices; ubiquitous and pervasive computing; digital overload; user experience in computing; audio technologies; children’s use of technology


  • Emma Burgess
  • Tomy Chacko
  • Emma Eglington
  • Said Ethem
  • Michelle Owen
  • Luke Wilsdon

Cyber Lab 360° Tour

Questionnaires Developed by CRUW

The following scales have been developed by members of CRUW and are free to use by anyone, providing a citation is given in any published outputs. If you would like to use any of our scales please contact us and we would be happy to provide you with a copy. 

The SMMS measures the motivations that individuals may have for using Social Networking Sites (SNS). The following constructs are measured by the SMMS: procrastination, freedom of expression, conformity, information exchange, new connections, ritual, social maintenance, escapism, recreation and experimentation. Our own research using the SMSS (Orchard, Fullwood, Galbraith and Morris, 2014) has shown that individuals with various personality profiles are motivated to use SNS for different reasons. For example, individuals who score high on Psychoticism value the use of SNS for the ability to express themselves freely. 

Download our questionnaire here - Social Media Motivations Scale (SMMS) (Word doc 24k)

The BMQ measures individuals' motivations for keeping blogs. The following blogging motivations are measured by the BMQ: emotional outlet, social networking, advertising, personal revelation, creative outlet and selective disclosure. Our own research using the BMQ (Fullwood, Nicholls and Makichi, 2015) has demonstrated that blogging motivations can be predicted by personality and individual differences. For example, we note how Agreeableness relates to the use of the blog for selective disclosure, which may be a direct attempt by the blogger to manage the impressions of others.

Download our questionnaire here - Blogging Motivations Questionnaire (BMQ) (Word doc 55k)

The POSS measures online self-presentation behaviour and includes four subscales: (a) ‘‘ideal self,’’ which relates to the extent to which individuals present an idealized version of self online, (b) ‘‘multiple selves’’ describes the extent to which individuals present different versions of self across online environments, (c) ‘‘consistent self’’ relates to the extent to which an individual’s offline and online self-presentation are analogous, and (d) ‘‘online presentation preference’’ describes the extent to which individuals prefer presenting themselves online. Our own research using the POSS (Fullwood, James & Chen-Wilson, 2016) has found that adolescents who have a lower self-concept clarity are more likely to present idealised and multiple versions of the self online, as well as having a preference for presenting the self online over offline.

Download our questionnaire here - ‌Presentation of Online Self Scale (POSS) (Word doc 86k)

The POCCS measures the different factors which might influence members’ propensity to participate in online health support groups. The scale includes 37 items and 9 subscales which include: ‘poor sense of community’, 2) ‘struggles with self-expression’, 3) ‘inhibited disclosure and privacy’, 4) ‘negative online interactions’, 5) ‘ease of access and use’, 6) ‘health preventing contribution’, 7) ‘delayed and selective contribution’, 8) ‘goals met without contribution’ and 9) ‘lack of time’. Our research outlining the development and validation of this scale (Fullwood, Chadwick, Keep, Attrill-Smith, Asbury & Kirwan, G, 2019) has been published in Computers in Human Behavior. In the paper we note how many of these factors predict whether users make contributions to online support groups and the positive experiences in the form of empowering processes that they receive. 

Download our questionnaire here - Propensity for Online Community Contribution Scale (POCCS) (Word doc 31k)

Selected Publications:

  • Kaye, L. K., Rousaki, A., Joyner, L. C., Barrett, L. A., & Orchard, L. J. (2022). The Online Behaviour Taxonomy: A conceptual framework to understand behaviour in computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 107443.
  • Jovanović, T., Bodroža, B., Orchard, L., Fullwood, C., Kermani, H., Casale, S., ... & Hren, D. (2022). Cross-cultural validity of the psycho-social aspects of Facebook Use (PSAFU) scale. Psihologija, (00), 13-13.
  • Wesson, C.J., & Attrill-Smith, A. (2021). Calling revenge porn what it is. Cyberpsychology Bulletin, Issue 5.
  • Chadwick, D., Ågren, K. A., Caton, S., Chiner, E., Danker, J., Gómez‐Puerta, M., ... & Wallén, E. F. (2022). Digital inclusion and participation of people with intellectual disabilities during COVID‐19: A rapid review and international bricolage. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities.
  • Attrill-Smith, A., Wesson, C. J., Chater, M. L., & Weekes, L. (2021). Gender differences in videoed accounts of victim blaming for revenge porn for self-taken and stealth-taken sexually explicit images and videos. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 15(4).
  • Lloyd J, Nicklin LL, Spicer SG, Fullwood C, Uther M, Hinton DP, Parke J, Lloyd H, Close J. (2021) Development and Validation of the RAFFLE: A Measure of Reasons and Facilitators for Loot Box Engagement. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 10(24), 5949.
  • Close, J., Spicer, S. G., Nicklin, L. L., Uther, M., Lloyd, J., & Lloyd, H. (2021). Secondary analysis of loot box data: are high-spending “whales” wealthy gamers or problem gamblers? Addictive Behaviors, 117, 106851.
  • Orchard, L.J., Nicholls, W. (2020) A systematic review exploring the impact of social media on breastfeeding practices. Current Psychology.
  • Fullwood, C., Wesson, C., Chen-Wilson, J., Keep, M., Asbury, T., & Wilsdon, L. (2020). If the Mask Fits: Psychological Correlates with Online Self-Presentation Experimentation in Adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 23(11), 737-742.
  • Scott, G. G., & Fullwood, C. (2020). Does recent research evidence support the hyperpersonal model of online impression management?. Current Opinion in Psychology.
  • Uther, M., Cleveland, M., & Jones, R. (2020). Digital Distractions: The Effect and Use of Digital Message Alerts and Their Relationship with Work-Life Balance. In Agile Working and Well-Being in the Digital Age (pp. 63-76). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
  • Fullwood, C., Chadwick, D., Keep, M., Attrill-Smith, A., Asbury, T., & Kirwan, G. (2019). Lurking towards empowerment: Explaining propensity to engage with online health support groups and its association with positive outcomes. Computers in Human Behavior, 90, 131-140
  • Meredith, J. & Richardson, E. (2019). The use of the categories Brexiter and Remainer in online comment threads. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology.
  • Uther, M. (2019). Mobile Learning. MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
  • Bhogal, M. S., & Howman, J. M. (2018). Mate Value Discrepancy and Attachment Anxiety Predict the Perpetration of Digital Dating Abuse. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 1-8.
  • Chadwick, D., & Fullwood, C. (2018). An online life like any other: Identity, self-determination, and social networking among adults with intellectual disabilities. Cyberpsychology, Social Networking and Behavior, 21(1), 56-64.
  • Ditchfield, H., & Meredith, J. (2018). Collecting qualitative online data. In U. Flick (ed.) SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Data Collection. (pp.496-510). London: Sage Publications.
  • Fullwood, C., & Attrill, A. (2018). Updating: Ratings of perceived dating success are better online. Cyberpsychology, Social Networking and Behavior, 21(1), 11-15.
  • Kirwan, G., Fullwood, C., & Rooney, B. (2018). Risk factors for social networking site scam victimisation amongst Malaysian students. Cyberpsychology, Social Networking and Behavior, 21(2), 123-128
  • Ormsby, H., Owen, A. L., & Bhogal, M. S. (2018). A brief report on the associations amongst social media use, gender, and body esteem in a UK student sample. Current Psychology, 1-5.
  • Uther, M. & Banks, A. (2018) User perceptions of sound quality: implications for the use of audio-based mobile applications. International Journal of Human-computer interaction, DOI: 10.1080/10447318.2018.1532195
  • Uther, M., Cleveland, M. & Jones, R. (2018). Email overload? Brain and behavioural responses to common messaging alerts are heightened for email alerts and are associated with job involvement. Frontiers in Psychology, 9(1206).
  • Uther, M., Smolander, A-R., Junttila, K., Kurimo, M., Karhila, R., Enarvi, S. (2018) User experiences from children using a speech learning application: implications for designers of speech training applications for children. Advances in Human-Computer Interaction Vol. 2018,
  • Deans, H., & Bhogal, M. S. (2017). Perpetrating Cyber Dating Abuse: A Brief Report on the Role of Aggression, Romantic Jealousy and Gender. Current Psychology, 1-6.
  • Chadwick, D., Quinn, S., & Fullwood, C. (2017). Perceptions of the risks and benefits of Internet access and use by people with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(1), 23-31.
  • Fullwood, C., Quinn, S., Kaye, L.K., & Reddings, C. (2017). My Virtual friend: A qualitative analysis of the attitudes and experiences of Smartphone users: Implications for Smartphone attachment. Computers in Human Behavior, 75, 347-355.
  • Galpin, A.J., Meredith, J., Ure, C.M. and Robinson, L. (2017). “Thanks for letting us all share your mammogram experience virtually”: Developing an online hub for cancer screening' , Journal of Medical Internet Research: Cancer, 3 (2) , e17.
  • Hofmann, J., Platt, T., & Ruch, W. (2017). Laughter and smiling in 16 positive emotions. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing. 
  • Meredith, J. (2017). Analysing technological affordances of online interactions using conversation analysis. Journal of Pragmatics, 115, pp. 42-55.
  • Attrill, A., & Fullwood, C. (2016). Applied Cyberpsychology: Practical applications of Cyberpsychological research and theory. Palgrave Macmillan. 
  • Attrill, A. (2015). Cyberpsychology. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
  • Fullwood, C., James, B., & Chen-Wilson, J. (2016). Self-concept clarity and online self-presentation in adolescents. CyberPsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 19(12), 716-720
  • Lloyd, J., Hawton, K., Dutton, W. H., Geddes, J. R., Goodwin, G. M., & Rogers, R. D. (2016). Thoughts and acts of self‐harm, and suicidal ideation, in online gamblers. InternationalGambling Studies, 16, 408‐423.
  • Fullwood, C. (2015). The role of personality in online self-presentation. In A. Attrill (Ed.) Cyberpsychology (pp. 9-28). Oxford University Press, Oxford. 
  • Fullwood, C., Nicholls, N., & Makichi, R. (2015). We've got something for everyone: How individual differences predict different blogging motivations. New Media and Society, 17(9), 1583-1600.
  • Fullwood, C., Quinn, S., Chen-Wilson, J., Chadwick. D., & Reynolds, K. (2015). Put on a smiley face: Textspeak and personality perceptions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 18(3), 147-151. 
  • Orchard, L., Fullwood, C., Morris, N., & Galbraith, N. (2015). Investigating the Facebook experience through Q methodology: Collective investment and a ‘Borg’ mentality. New Media and Society. 17(9), 1547-1565
  • Attrill, A. (2014). The misconception of online splurging and associated security risks.  Cybertalk, UK.
  • Eftekhar, A., Fullwood, C., & Morris, N. (2014). Capturing personality from Facebook photos and photo-related activities: How much exposure do you need? Computers in Human Behavior, 37, 162–170.
  • Orchard, L., Fullwood, C., Galbraith, N., & Morris. (2014). Individual differences as predictors of social networking. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 19(3), 388-402. 
  • Chadwick, D., Fullwood, C., & Wesson, C. (2013). Intellectual disability, identity and the Internet. In R. Luppicini (Ed.) Handbook of research on technoself: identity in a technological society. USA: IGI Global (pp. 229-254).
  • Chadwick, D., Wesson, C., & Fullwood, C. (2013). Internet access by people with intellectual disabilities: Inequalities and opportunities. Future Internet, 5(3), 376-397.
  • Fullwood, C., Orchard, L., & Floyd, S. (2013). Emoticon convergence in Internet chat rooms. Social Semiotics, 23(5), 648-662.
  • Attrill, A. (2012). Self-disclosure online. In Zheng Yan (Ed.) Encyclopedia of cyber behavior. Ing pulishers: New York.
  • Attrill, A. (2012). Sharing only parts of me: categorical self-disclosure across Internet Arenas. International Journal of Internet Science, 7(1), 55-77.
  • Lloyd, J.; Doll, H.; Hawton, K.; Dutton, W.H.; Geddes, J.; Goodwin, G. M.; Rogers, R.D. (2012) Investigating the heterogeneity of problem‐gambling symptoms in Internet gamblers. In: Routledge Handbook of Internet Gambling. Robert Williams, Robert Wood, & Jonathan Parke (eds.)
  • Attrill, A., & Jalil, R. (2011). Revealing only the superficial me: Exploring categorical self-disclosure online. Computers in Human Behavior, 27, 1634 – 1642.
  • Orchard, L.J. & Fullwood, C. (2010). Current perspectives on personality and Internet use. Social Science Computer Review, 28(2), 155-169.

To contact the team regarding research/publications please e-mail Dr Joanne Lloyd