Copyright Licensing Agency

For photocopying and scanning / digitising (via our scanning service). Digitising material for use in modules and using images in teaching.

This licence covers us for photocopying, scanning/digitising from books, journals, magazines etc, where copyright is owned by CLA members (authors and publishers).

Lecturers can request items to be scanned and made available to students registered on the lecturer’s modules. We have a digitisation service in operation for the delivery of Digital/Scanned items. These items are made accessible to students via the University's VLE (Virtual Learning Environment) - known as Canvas and or Pebblepad (with access restrictions to ‘University Staff and Students’).

Lecturers should contact their Liaison Librarian in the first instance. Contact details can be found on the Staff & Researchers page.

CLA Licence – Copying Extent Limits for photocopying and scanning

  • Up to 10% or one whole chapter (which ever is the greater) from a book.
  • Up to 10% or one whole article (which ever is the greater) from a single issue of a journal.
  • Up to 10% or one paper (which ever is the greater) from a set of conference proceedings.
  • Up to 10% of an anthology of short stories or poems or one short story or one poem of not more than 10 pages (which ever is the greater).
  • Up to 10% or one single case (which ever is the greater) from a published report of judicial proceedings.

If a book is subdivided into parts or sections that are equivalent to a chapter based organisation of topics - the whole part can be copied as for a chapter.

In some rare cases books are not divided into chapters, or may only be published with 1 or 2 chapters - in these circumstances it is suggested that in keeping with the spirit of the licence agreement, the 10% limit should be applied.

A maximum limit applies to the number of multiple copies of an extract that can be made. It should not exceed the number of copies required to ensure that each student enrolled on a Course of Study (including the course tutor) are supplied with one copy. Please note that there should be no systematic or repeated copying of the same licensed material by the same set of students in the context of any one Course of Study.

This licence covers Distance Learners and Non Credit Bearing Courses as well.

Permission to make copies from copies (sometimes referred to as 'on copying') is dependent on the institution either:-

  • Owning at least one copy of the original published edition of the work.
  • Obtaining a 'copyright fee-paid' copy of licensed material from either the British Library or another licensed 'document supplier.'
  • Obtaining written permission from the copyright owner.

Photocopied extracts can be kept in a Short Loan / Reserve / Key texts collections (the 'first generation / master copy' is subject to the extent limits noted above). Further copies of the master copy are subject to the conditions of copies to copies noted above.

Permission to make copies of extracts from licensed material for inclusion in compilations described as Course Packs, Study Packs, Course Readers or Module Guides has also been granted in the CLA licence. Inclusion of these 'extracts' is subject to the same extent limits (5% / one chapter / one article) as copying for other purposes.

We have photocopying guidelines on the 'do's and don'ts' available at Photocopying Machines within the University. We also provide information posters at our Learning Centres photocopying machines regarding the CLA - Commercial copying / Sticker scheme - for 'walk in users' and 'visitors' not covered as 'authorised persons' (i.e. staff and registered students) by the current terms of our CLA Licence.

This licence does not cover the copying of material published on CD-Roms or material published electronically and available via the Internet.

Also this is the link to the CLA’s ‘Excluded Works’ list with information on what publishers are not covered by the licence agreement.

This is a link to Publishers in other countries who allow use of their material under the licence and how material can be used (i. e. photocopied and or scanned).

This licence does cover the photocopying needs for 'Visually Impaired Students and Staff' under The Copyright Visually Impaired Act 2002. We can also provide ‘scanned / digitised’ chapters for electronic reader access through this section of the Act - if they cannot be provided by the rights owners.

Visually Impaired Guidelines (Helping Students with Additional Needs):

This institution is licensed to make reduced or enlarged photocopies of up to the whole of a book, magazine or journal for the use of visually impaired students or members of staff.

No charge is incurred for this provision but the following conditions must be observed:

  • Copies may only be made for, and used by, visually impaired students or staff.
  • One copy of the original published edition of the publication being copied must have been bought by the licensee and be available to other students and staff of the licensee.
  • Please note that if a copy of the book is available for the personal use of the student, then under the Joint Industry Guidelines an accessible copy in any format may be made.
  • If enlargement is required, the publication to be copied must not be already commercially available in a suitable large print format.
  • The number of copies made shall not exceed those required for the purposes of instruction.
  • Copies made may not be edited or bound up with other copyright material and they may not be published or sold in any way.

No electronic storage or transmission is allowed. Provision of electronic versions direct to students are only with permission of rights owners – or through use of Section 1 of the Copyright (VIP) Act 2002 (section 31 of CDPA) 1988.

For more information on the Copyright Licensing Agency please visit their web site at