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Dr Christopher Stone

Dr Christopher Stone

Reader in Interpreting and Translation

  • Email address
  • Phone number 01902 32 1422
  • Location Room MH217, Mary Seacole Building, Nursery Street, Wolverhampton WV1 1AD
  • Faculty Faculty of Social Sciences
  • Institute School of Social, Historical and Political Studies
  • Areas of expertise
    • Sign language interpreting and translation
    • Deaf interpreters and translators
    • Interpreting and translation in the media and on broadcast television
    • Pragmatics
    • Ethnography
    • Expert witness

I previously held academic posts at Gallaudet University, UCL and University of Bristol. I am currently in receipt of a Spencer Foundation grant with my colleague Dr Gene Mirus for the project "The development of Deaf legal discourse", which examines the use of ASL by Deaf lawyers.

I have explored (with Drs. Robert Adam and Breda Carty) Deaf people working as translators and interpreters within the Deaf community and at the institutional interface. I have also studied Deaf/nonDeaf interpreting teams in international conference settings with Dr. Debra Russell examining team strategies and use of depiction. My first postdoctoral research post was based at the Deafness Cognition and Language (DCAL) research centre, University College, London, undertaking a longitudinal study examining predictors for sign language learning and sign language interpreter aptitude. I earned my PhD from the University of Bristol (2006) where I researched Deaf translators working within television news rendering English into British Sign Language, which resulted in the publication of Towards a Deaf Translation Norm (Gallaudet University Press 2009).

OCRID 0000-0002-7842-8029


My research covers a variety of areas within Interpreting Studies, ethnography, language and cognition. My most recent work covers the areas described below:

Deaf interpreters: exploring the translation style(s) adopted by Deaf interpreters as community members. Identifying the role of community membership in the types of pragmatic enrichments and impoverishments (following Relevance Theory) that occur between the source and target language by analysing the accounts of Deaf interpreters. Also identifying the emergent political acts of reclamation and post-colonial defiance when interpreting mainstream news broadcast for a minority language audience.

Systemic influence and the ruling relations of interpreting: exploring the invisible work of interpreters within and without the language-event. Applying an Institutional Ethnographic lens the work of interpreters to identify the policies and texts that coordinate the work of interpreters within different institutional settings (e.g. education, the police, courts).

The Development of Deaf legal discourse: documenting the emergence of specialised vocabulary in ASL, its linguistic features and looking at the process in which specialised signs come to fruition. An informed understanding of deaf American lawyers’ development and use of specialised terminology in ASL is crucial to building solutions which are needed to address the gap in the linguistic repertoire sign for deaf law students, deaf communities and the sign language interpreters who serve them.

Deaf and hearing interpreting teams: exploring accounts and examining the work of interpreting teams to describe and understand effective co-working strategies. This includes the role of pausing, non-manual markers, prosody of pivot and final rendered language, and the team dynamics within the language-work event and the macro team-work.

Interpreter aptitude: examining the foundational and developmental cognitive skills of interpreters in university training compared with expert interpreters (who are university graduates). Specifically looking at L2 phonological development, working memory, set shifting, grammaticality judgements and L1 fluency.

Fellow of the Association of Sign Language Interpreters UK (ASLI)


Registered Sign Language Interpreter (RSLI NRCPD) languages: BSL, English, ASL

Member and Certified Interpreter, Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) languages: ASL, English

Active member International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC) languages: English (A), BSL (A), ASL (B)


Professional Standards panel member, National Register of Communication Professionals with Deaf and Deaf blind people (NRCPD

Member European forum of sign language interpreters

Member World Association of Sign Language Interpreters


Member World Federation of the Deaf (WFD)

2018 University of Wolverhampton: PGCert Higher Education and Professional Practice

2006 University of Bristol: PhD Deaf Studies

2001 University of Bristol: MA Deaf Studies

1997 University of Bristol: DipSS Deaf Studies (Interpreting)

1995 University of Exeter: BSc (Hons) Chemistry with study in Europe

Journal articles:

De Meulder, M, Napier, J, and Stone, C (2018). Designated or preferred? A deaf academic and two signed language interpreters working together for a PhD defense: A case study of best practice, International Journal of Interpreter Education, 10(2), 5-26,

Stone C (2017). Sign language interpreting: The trials and tribulations of a longitudinal study. Translation & Interpreting, 9 (1),

Stone C and West D (2012). Translation, representation and the Deaf 'voice'. Qualitative Research, 12 (6), 645-665. doi: 10.1177/1468794111433087.

Adam R, Carty B, Stone C (2011). Ghostwriting: Deaf translators within the Deaf Community. Babel, 57 (4), 375–393. doi: 10.1075/babel.57.4.01ada.

Stone C (2010). Access all areas - sign language interpreting, is it that special? Journal of Specialised Translation ( 14, 41-54.

Woll B & Stone C (2008). Interpreting at the Old Bailey. Deaf History Journal 12 (1), 8-17.

Stone C & Woll B (2008) DUMB O JEMMY and others: Deaf people, interpreters and the London courts in the 18th and 19th centuries, Sign Language Studies, 8 (3), 226 - 240. doi: 10.1353/sls.2008.0009

Stone C. (2007) Deaf Translators/Interpreters’ renderings processes - The translation of Oral languages, The Sign Language Translator and Interpreter, 1 (1), 53-72.



Roy, C.B., Brunson J.L., and Stone, C. (2018) The academic foundations of interpreting studies: An introduction to its theories, Washington, D.C: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone C (2009). Towards a Deaf translation norm, Washington, D.C: Gallaudet University Press.


Book chapters:

Stone C and Hughes T (in press) Facilitating legitimate peripheral participation for student sign language interpreters in medical settings. In I Souza and E Fragkou (eds.) Handbook of Research on Medical Interpreting. Hershey, PA: IGI Global.


Stone C (2019) Pointing, telling, and showing – multimodal dietic enrichment during in-vision sign language translation. In R Tipton and L Desilla (eds.) The routledge handbook on translation and pragmatics. London: Routledge.

Stone, C (2018) Being in it, to win it. In S Costa (ed.) Theory in practice - Practice in theory: Bridging the gap between researchers and practitioners Proceedings Nordic Seminar 2018. Stockholm: STTF.

Stone C and Issari, S. (2018) Becoming conference interpreters: the deaf experience. In C Stone (ed.) Deaf interpreting in Europe: exploring best practice in the field. Copenhagen: DDL.

Stone C and G Mirus (2018) The development of Deaf legal discourse. In A Creese and A Blackledge (eds.) The routledge handbook on language and superdiversity. London: Routledge.

Stone C and Russell D (2016). A comparative analysis of depicting signs in IS and natural sign language interpreting. In R Rosenstock and J Napier (Eds.) International Sign: Linguistic, usage and status issues. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone C (2015) Deaf interpreter. In F Pöchhacker (Ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies (p. 100). London: Routledge.

Russell D and Stone C (2014). Conference interpreting and interpreting teams. In R Adam, C Stone, S Collins, and M Metzger (Eds.) Deaf interpreters at work: International insights (pp. 140-156). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone C (2013). Our history and ideas we best not forget. In B. Winston and C. Monikowski (Eds.) Evolving Paradigms in Interpreter Education (pp. 159-163). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone C (2013). The UNCRPD and ‘professional’ sign language interpreter provision. In C. Schäffner, K. Kredens and Y. Fowler (Eds.) Interpreting in a Changing Landscape. Selected papers from Critical Link 6 (pp. 83-100). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Stone C and Russell D (2013). Interpreting in international sign: decisions of Deaf and non-Deaf interpreters. In B Costello, M Thumann and R Shaw (Eds.) WASLI 3rd conference proceedings (pp. 100-118). WASLI.

Woll B and Stone C (2013). Deaf people at the Old Bailey from the 18th century onwards. In M. Freeman and F. Smith (Eds.) Language and the Law (pp. 557-570). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stone C (2012). Interpreting. In R. Pfau, M. Steinbach and B. Woll (Eds.), Handbook on Sign Language Linguistics (pp. 980-998). Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter.

Stone C , Walker J and Parsons P (2012). Professional recognition for Deaf Interpreters. In J Dickinson and C Stone (Eds.) ASLI 2010 Conference proceedings: Developing the interpreter; developing the profession (pp.109-117). Coleford: Douglas McLean.

Adam R and Stone C (2011). Contextualizing interpreting research through an historical lens. In B. Nicodemus and L. Swabie (Eds.), Advances in Interpreting Research (Vol. 99, pp. 225-239). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Stone C (2011). Register, discourse and genre in British Sign Language (BSL). In C. Roy (ed), Discourse in Sign Languages (Vol. 17, pp. 121-154). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press. Stone C (2008). Whose interpreter is she anyway? In C. Roy (ed), WASLI 2nd conference proceedings (pp. 75-88). Coleford: Douglas Mclean.

Stone, C and Edwards J. (2010). Protection for the Interpreter: the Role of Professional and Registration Bodies: Public Confidence and Professional Standards. In EVTÜ (Eds.) efsli 2009 conference proceedings: Sound mind in sound hands (pp. 26-30). Estonia: Ortwil.

Stone C (2010). Sign language and interpretation. In: JH Stone, M Blouin, editors. International Encyclopedia of Rehabilitation. Available online:

Stone C (2007). Deaf access for Deaf people: the translation of the television news from English to British Sign Language, in J. Diaz-Cintas, A. Remael & P. Orero (Eds.), Media for all (pp. 71-88). Amsterdam: Rodopi.


Edited books:

C Stone and L Leeson (Eds.) (2017) Interpreting and the politics of recognition: IATIS yearbook 2017. London: Routledge.

R Adam, C Stone, S Collins, and M Metzger (Eds.) (2014) Deaf interpreters at work: International insights. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.


Conference Proceedings:

S Bown, K Dekesel and C Stone (Eds.) (2015). Mind tricks, efsli conference proceedings, efsli 12-14 September 2014, Antwerp, Belgium.

Dickinson J, & Stone C (Eds.) (2012), Developing the interpreters, developing the profession, ASLI 2010 conference proceedings, ASLI conference 2010, 16-17 October 2010, Nottingham, UK. Coleford: Douglas Mclean.

Adam R & Stone C (Eds.) (2011) Synergy - moving forward together, efsli conference proceedings, efsli conference 2010, 11-12th September 2010, Glasgow, Scotland.

Nardi M & Stone C (Eds.) (2004). Community interpreting, the essence, the value, the future, conference proceedings, 11th Annual efsli conference 2003, 3 -5 October 2003 Brighton England.



Russell D and Stone C (2011) Interview with a scholar and a gentleman: Christopher Stone, International Journal of Interpreter Education, 3, 82-87.

Adam, R., and Stone, C. (2011). Are Deaf interpreters part of a global Deaf renaissance? Across the Board, Association of Sign Language Interpreters., 6, 14-15.

Stone C. (2010) Towards a Deaf translation norm (IS presentation). Il Congresso Nacional de Pequis em Tradução e Interpretação de Língua de Sinais Brasileria, Florianópolis, 25-27 November 2010, DVD 6, Florianópolis: UFSC.

Stone C. and Woll B. (2010). Deaf people, interpreters, and the London Central Criminal Court (The Old Bailey) in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. British Deaf News, May, 2010.

Adam, R., and Stone, C. (2009). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, sign language research and sign language interpreters. WFD News (May), 16-17.

2009 BBC See Hear, The real life of interpreters, broadcast 28th October

2008 BBC See Hear, Interpreter Special, broadcast 5th March

1998 onwards Free Lance Interpreter

Work in a variety of settings including, court, police, doctors' surgeries, hospitals, dentists, business meetings, AGM's, university lectures, local media (BBC radio and television), national media and conferences (ASLI, BAAL, BBC, LAGB, Labour party conference, UNISON, etc.), European meetings and conferences (EFSLI, EU Commission, EU Parliament, Council of Europe, etc.) and international meetings and conferences (CUNY, Deaflympics, ICED, IOC, TISLR, UN, WASLI, WFD, etc.).

Working languages English (A), BSL (A), ASL (B), IS (B), French (C), and ISL (C).

I am currently the President of the World Association of Sign Language Interpreters (WASLI) and a member of the Research Committee of the International Association of Conference Interpreters (AIIC).