Staff Profile: Dr Christopher Stone

Dr Christopher StoneFaculty

Faculty of Social Sciences


School of Social, Historical and Political Studies


Senior Lecturer

Contact details

Direct line: 01902 321422



Faculty of Social Sciences
University of Wolverhampton
Mary Seacole Building
Nursery  Street


I previously held academic posts at Gallaudet University, UCL and University of Bristol. I am currently in receipt of a Spencer Foundation grant with my colleague Dr Gene Mirus for the project "The development of Deaf legal discourse", which examines the use of ASL by Deaf lawyers.

I have explored (with Drs. Robert Adam and Breda Carty) Deaf people working as translators and interpreters within the Deaf community and at the institutional interface. I have also studied Deaf/nonDeaf interpreting teams in international conference settings with Dr. Debra Russell examining team strategies and use of depiction. My first postdoctoral research post was based at the Deafness Cognition and Language (DCAL) research centre, University College, London, undertaking a longitudinal study examining predictors for sign language learning and sign language interpreter aptitude. I earned my PhD from the University of Bristol (2006) where I researched Deaf translators working within television news rendering English into British Sign Language, which resulted in the publication of Towards a Deaf Translation Norm (Gallaudet University Press 2009).

Academic qualifications

  • 2006 Bristol University: PhD Deaf Studies
  • 2001 Bristol University: MA Deaf Studies
  • 1997 Bristol University: DipSS Deaf Studies (Interpreting)
  • 1995 Exeter University: BSc (Hons) Chemistry with study in Europe

Teaching interests

  • Translation, consecutive and simultaneous interpreting
  • Deaf identities and Deaf people today
  • BSL enhancement for interpreters
  • Research projects

Corporate and community engagement

Interpreting work: various regional, national and international work including, BBC News 24, British Deaf Association, European Union of the Deaf, World Federation of the Deaf, EU Parliament, EU Commission, Council of Europe, UN

Professional body membership and roles

  • Fellow of the Association of Sign Language Interpreters UK (ASLI),
  • Member European forum of sign language interpreters (also co-opted Board Member)
  • Member World Association of Sign Language Interpreters (also European representative) Professional Standards panel member, National Register of Communication Professionals with Deaf and Deaf blind people (NRCPD)
  • Registered Sign Language Interpreter (RSLI NRCPD) languages: BSL, English, ASL
  • Member and Certified Interpreter, Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf (RID) languages: ASL, English
  • Member Critical Link International (also Board Member)
  • Member World Federation of the Deaf (WFD)

Research interests

My research covers a variety of areas within Interpreting Studies, ethnography, language and cognition. My most recent work covers the areas described below:

The Development of Deaf legal discourse: documenting the emergence of specialized vocabulary in ASL, its linguistic features and looking at the process in which specialized signs come to fruition. An informed understanding of deaf American lawyers’ development and use of specialized terminology in ASL is crucial to building solutions which are needed to address the gap in the linguistic repertoire sign for deaf law students, deaf communities and the sign language interpreters who serve them.

Systemic influence and the ruling relations of interpreting: exploring the invisible work of interpreters within and without the language-event. Applying an Institutional Ethnographic lens the work of interpreters to identify the policies and texts that coordinate the work of interpreters within different institutional settings (e.g. education, the police, courts).

Deaf interpreters: exploring the translation style(s) adopted by Deaf interpreters as community members. Identifying the role of community membership in the types of pragmatic enrichments and impoverishments (following Relevance Theory) that occur between the source and target language by analysing the accounts of Deaf interpreters. Also identifying the emergent political acts of reclamation and post-colonial defiance when interpreting mainstream news broadcast for a minority language audience.

Deaf and hearing interpreting teams: exploring accounts and examining the work of interpreting teams to describe and understand effective co-working strategies. This includes the role of pausing, non-manual markers, prosody of pivot and final rendered language, and the team dynamics within the language-work event and the macro team-work.

Interpreter aptitude: examining the foundational and developmental cognitive skills of interpreters in university training compared with expert interpreters (who are university graduates). Specifically looking at L2 phonological development, working memory, set shifting, grammaticality judgements and L1 fluency.

External academic roles

  • Member Sign Language Linguistics Society (SLLS)
  • Occasional grant reviewer: NSF, British Academy
  • Occasional journal reviewer: Perspectives: Studies in Translatology, Interpreting, Journal of Interpretation, New Voices; Translation & Interpretation; Meta

Selected publications

Articles in journals

Stone C and West D (2012). Translation, representation and the Deaf 'voice'. Qualitative Research, 12 (6), 645-665. doi: 10.1177/1468794111433087.

Adam R, Carty B, Stone C (2011). Ghostwriting: Deaf translators within the Deaf Community. Babel, 57(4), 375–393.

Stone C (2010). Access all areas - sign language interpreting, is it that special? Journal of Specialised Translation ( 14, 41-54.

Woll B & Stone C (2008). Interpreting at the Old Bailey. Deaf History Journal 12 (1), 8-17.

Stone C & Woll B (2008) DUMB O JEMMY and others: Deaf people, interpreters and the London courts in the 18th and 19th centuries, Sign Language Studies, 8 (3), 226 - 240. doi: 10.1353/sls.

Stone C. (2007) Deaf Translators/Interpreters’ renderings processes - The translation of Oral languages, The Sign Language Translator and Interpreter, 1 (1), 53-72.


Stone C (2009). Towards a Deaf translation norm, Washington, D.C: Gallaudet University Press.

Chapters in books

Stone, C. and Russell, D. (2016). A comparative analysis of depicting signs in IS and natural sign language interpreting. In R Rosenstock and J Napier (Eds.) International Sign: Linguistic, usage and status issues. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone, C. (2015). Deaf interpreter. In F Pöchhacker (Ed.) Routledge Encyclopedia of Interpreting Studies (p. 100). London: Routledge.

Russell D and Stone C (2014). Conference interpreting and interpreting teams. In R Adam, C Stone, S Collins, and M Metzger (Eds.) Deaf interpreters at work: International insights (pp. 140-156). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Stone C (2013). Our history and ideas we best not forget. In B. Winston and C. Monikowski (Eds.) Evolving Paradigms in Interpreter Education (pp. 159-163). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Woll B and Stone C (2013). Deaf people at the Old Bailey from the 18th century onwards. In M. Freeman and F. Smith (Eds.) Law and Language (Vol. 15, pp. 557-570). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Stone C (2013). The UNCRPD and ‘professional’ sign language interpreter provision. In C. Schäffner, K. Kredens and Y. Fowler (Eds.) Interpreting in a Changing Landscape. Selected papers from Critical Link 6 (pp. 83-100). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Stone C and Russell D (2013). Interpreting in international sign: decisions of Deaf and non-Deaf interpreters. In B Costello, M Thumann and R Shaw (Eds.) WASLI 3rd conference proceedings (pp. 100-118). WASLI.

Stone C (2012). Interpreting. In R. Pfau, M. Steinbach and B. Woll (Eds.), Handbook on Sign Language Linguistics (pp. 980-998). Amsterdam: Mouton de Gruyter.

Edited books

Bown, S., Dekesel, K., and Stone, C. (Eds.) (2015). Mind tricks, efsli conference proceedings, efsli 12-14 September 2014, Antwerp, Belgium.

R Adam, C Stone, S Collins, and M Metzger (Eds.) (2014) Deaf interpreters at work: International insights. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.

Dickinson J, & Stone C (Eds.) (2012), Developing the Interpreters, Developing the Profession, ASLI 2010 conference proceedings, ASLI conference 2010, 16-17th October 2010, Nottingham, UK. Coleford: Douglas Mclean.

Adam R & Stone C (Eds.) (2011) efsli conference proceedings, SYNERGY - Moving Forward Together, efsli conference 2010, 11-12th September 2010, Glasgow, Scotland.


Russell D and Stone C (2011) Interview with a scholar and a gentleman: Christopher Stone, International Journal of Interpreter Education, 3, 82-87.

Adam, R., and Stone, C. (2011). Are Deaf interpreters part of a global Deaf renaissance? Across the Board, Association of Sign Language Interpreters., 6, 14-15.

Stone C. (2010) Towards a Deaf translation norm (IS presentation). Il Congresso Nacional de Pequis em Tradução e Interpretação de Língua de Sinais Brasileria, Florianópolis, 25-27 November 2010, DVD 6, Florianópolis: UFSC.

Stone C. and Woll B. (2010). Deaf people, interpreters, and the London Central Criminal Court (The Old Bailey) in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. British Deaf News, May, 2010.

Adam, R., and Stone, C. (2009). Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities, sign language research and sign language interpreters. WFD News (May), 16-17.

2009 BBC See Hear, The real life of interpreters, broadcast 28th October

2008 BBC See Hear, Interpreter Special, broadcast 5th March