The University of Wolverhampton

Harvard Referencing

Harvard style referencing is the most commonly used system at the University. Sometimes known as the “author, date” method, Harvard consists of two main elements:

  • a citation within the text of your assignment
  • a list of references at the end of your assignment

Referencing in the text

When you summarise, refer to, or quote from an author's work in your document, you need to acknowledge your source in the text. In Harvard, you do this by putting the author’s name, publication year, and page number (if applicable) in round brackets.

Example: (Ayra, 2003, p.41)

In the reference list, you then put the full details of the reference to enable a reader to trace the source of information that you used:

Example: Ayra, C. (2003) Design of structural elements. 2nd ed. London: Spon Press

Direct quotation

When you use the exact words from the text, you should use double quotation marks and the page number.

Example: “At the crux of any discussion of what happened during the sixties, one inevitably comes up against the word revolution” (Green, 1999, p.17)

Long quotations

For long quotations of more than 4 lines, you should indent the quotation and there is no requirement for quotation marks.

Reference list or bibliography?

A reference list is a list of all the information sources that you have cited in your text. A bibliography is a list of items that you have read, and has informed your thinking, but not specifically cited in your assignment.

Check the requirements for each module with your tutor. Your list should be completed in alphabetical order by author's surname regardless of the format of the information source.

Read the Full Guide to Harvard Referencing Below:

LS067 Harvard 2014 (PDF 734K, Downloads file)

LS067 Harvard2014 (Word doc 801k)