Staff Profile: Professor A J Waddington
Professor of Social Policy
Professor Waddington has researched policing
and police work for over 30 years, publishing eleven books (with
another planned), plus numerous articles in academic and
professional journals. He has lectured to academic and professional
audiences throughout Europe, North and South America, Africa and
Australia. His research has focused on the police use of force,
including weaponry. He has acted as an advisor to official
inquiries, most recently as a member of the expert panel advising
Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary in his reports on the
policing of the G20 protests. Professor Waddington has recently led
an ESRC–funded research project on public evaluations of police
conduct using video–clips as scenarios to be discussed by focus
groups — a novel methodology. He has also pioneered the use of
‘cognitive interviewing’ as a research technique and runs training
sessions to familiarise researchers with this technique.
- Police Cadet and Police Constable, Birmingham City Police
- Research Officer (1970-73), Research Fellow (1973-74), Lecturer
(1974-76), Department of Adult Education and Extramural Studies,
University of Leeds.
- Lecturer (1976-1992), Reader (1992-95), Professor (1995-1999),
Department of Sociology, The University of Reading
- Professor of Political Sociology (1999-2005), Department of
Politics and International Relations, The University of
- B.Sc. (Sociology), University of London (external), upper
second division (1969).
- M.A. (Sociology), University of Leeds (1970).
- Ph.D. The Occupational Socialization of Prison Governor Grades,
University of Leeds (1977)
Books and Reports
- Waddington, P. A. J., Williams, Kate, Wright, Martin, and
Newburn, Tim (forthcoming), How People Judge Policing
(Oxford, Oxford University Press) forthcoming.
- Waddington, P. A. J., Kleinig, John, and Wright, Martin (eds.)
(2013), Professional Police Practice: Scenarios and
Dilemmas (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
- What is Policing? Learning Matters, Exeter, 2010, pp112
- Waddington, P.A.J., et al. (2009), 'Singing the same tune?
International continuities and discontinuities in how police talk
about using force ', Crime, Law and Social Change, 52
(Special issue on Policing Talk About the Use of Force: A
Comparative International Perspective), 111–38.
- The Violent Workplace, (with Ray Bull and Doug Badger) Willan,
Cullompton, 2005, pp 224
- Policing Citizens, UCL Press, London 1999, pp 303
- Liberty and Order: Policing Public Order in a Capital City, UCL
Press, London, 1994, pp 241.
- Calling the Police, Avebury, London, 1993, pp 220.
- Report of the Inquiry into the Police Response To, and
Investigation of, Events in Boipatong on 17 June 1992. Submitted to
the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public
Violence and Intimidation. The Honourable Justice R.J. Goldstone,
Chairman. Goldstone Commission, Pretoria, 1992.
- Towards Peaceful Protest in South Africa, (Together with other
members of the International Panel testifying before the Goldstone
Commission) Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South
Africa, 1992, pp 197.
- The Strong Arm of the Law: Armed and Public Order Policing,
Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991, pp 355
- Arming an Unarmed Police, Police Foundation, London, 1988, pp
- Policing, Protest and the Law, (With Patricia Leopold) Conflict
Studies No 175, Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1985, pp
- The Effects of Manpower Depletion During the NUM Dispute, The
Police Foundation, London, 1985, pp 78.
- Are the Police Fair?, Social Affairs Unit, Research Report No
2, London, 1983, pp 20.
- The Training of Prison Governors: Role ambiguity and
socialization, Croom Helm, London, 1983, pp 177.
Articles in Refereed Academic Journals and
Contributions to Refereed Edited Collections
- 'The Coup D'Etat - An Application of a Systems Framework',
Political Studies, vol 22, no 3, 1974, pp 299-310.
- 'Indeterminacy in Occupational Recruitment: the case of Prison
Assistant Governors', Sociology, vol 16, no 2, 1982, pp
- 'Conservatism, Dogmatism and Authoritarianism in the Police: A
comment', Sociology, vol 16, 1982, pp 592-94.
- 'Black Crime, the "Racist" Police and Fashionable Compassion',
in D.C. Anderson (ed), The Kindness That Kills: An Assessment of
Contemporary Church Comment on Socio-Economic Affairs, SPCK,
London, 1984, pp 39-50.
- 'Community Policing: A Sceptical Appraisal', in P. Norton (ed),
Law and Order in British Politics, Gower, Aldershot, 1984, pp
- 'The Role of the Police Committees: Constitutional Arrangements
and Social Realities', Local Government Studies, 1984, vol 10, pp
- 'Mugging as a "Moral Panic": A Question of Proportion', British
Journal of Sociology, 1986, vol 37, no 2, pp 245-59.
- 'Towards Paramilitarism? Dilemmas in the Policing of Public
Order', British Journal of Criminology (Special Issue on Policing
and the Police), 1987, vol 27, pp 37-46.
- '"Overkill" or "Minimum Force"?', Criminal Law Review, 1990,
October, pp 695-707
- ‘Riot Control, Minimum Force, and the British Police
Tradition', in R. Morgan (ed), Policing, Organised Crime and Crime
Prevention, Bristol, Bristol and Bath Centre for Criminal Justice,
1991, pp 49-74.
- '"Guardians" or "Bullies": Perceptions of the Police Amongst
Adolescent Black, White and Asian Boys' (with Quentin Braddock),
Policing and Society, 1991, vol 2, pp 31-45.
- '"The Case Against Paramilitary Policing" Considered', British
Journal of Criminology, 1993, vol 33, no 3, pp 353-373.
- 'Public Order in Britain', in M.L. Mathews, P.B. Heymann, and
A.S. Mathews (eds), Policing the Conflict in South Africa,
University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1993, pp 133-60.
- '"Dying in a Ditch": the Use of Police Powers in Public Order',
International Journal for the Sociology of Law, 1993, vol 21, pp
- "Eat, drink and be saved: the spiritual significance of
alternative diets." (with Malcolm Hamilton, Susan Gregory, and Ann
Walker). Social Compass 42:497-511. 1995
- 'Policing South Africa: the View from Boipatong', Policing and
Society, 1994, vol 4, pp 83-95.
- 'Coercion and Accommodation: Policing Public Order After the
Public Order Act', British Journal of Sociology, 1994, vol 45, no
3, September, pp 367-385.
- ‘Public Order Policing: Citizenship and Moral Ambiguity’, in F.
Leishman, B. Loveday and S.P. Savage (eds), Core Issues in
Policing, Longman, London, 1996, pp 114-130.
- ‘The Politics of Public Order Policing: A “Typograhical”
Analysis!’, in C. Critcher and David Waddington (eds), Policing
Public Order: Theoretical and Practical Issues, Avebury, Aldershot,
1996, pp 129-144.
- ‘The Other Side of the Barricades: Policing Protest’, in C.
Barker and P. Kennedy (eds), To Make Another World: Studies in
Protest and Collective Action, Avebury, Aldershot, 1996,
- "Contingence Des Styles De Gestion Du Maintien De L'ordre:
L'experience Britannique." Pp. 86-100 in Les Cahiers de la Sécurité
Intérieure. 27, Maintien de l'Ordre. Paris: Institut des Hautes
Etudes de la Sécurité Intérieure, 1997.
- ‘The impotence of the powerful: recent British police weapons
policy’ (with Malcolm Hamilton), Sociology vol 31, no 1, 1997, pp
- ‘Controlling Protest in Contemporary, Historical and
Comparative Perspective. European University Institute Working
Papers 97/6, 1997, 31pp
- ‘Controlling Protest in Contemporary, Historical and
Comparative Perspective’, in D. della Porta and H.R. Reiter (eds)
Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western
Democracies. Minneaapolis: University of Minnesota Press,
- ‘Both arms of the law’. The British Criminology Conferences:
Selected Proceedings, British Society for Criminology website
- ‘Armed and Unarmed Policing.’ in R. Mawby (ed) Comparative
Policing: Issues for the 21st Century. London: UCL Press,
- ‘Police (canteen) sub-culture: an appreciation’ British Journal
of Criminology vol 39, no 2, 1999, 287–309
- ‘Swatting paramilitarism: a comment on Kraska and Paulsen’
Policing and Society, vol 9, no 2, 1999, pp 125–140
- ‘Policing the funeral’ (with Tom Laidlaw), in T. Walter (ed)
The Mourning for Diana. Oxford: Berg, 1999.
- "Orthodoxy and advocacy in criminology." Theoretical
Criminology vol 4, 2000, pp 93-111.
- ‘Negotiating and defining “Public Order”’ Police Practice, vol
2, nos 1-2, 2001, pp 3-14
- "Crowd Behaviour, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal
Weapons." (with John Kenny, Donald Farrer, Sid Heal, Steve Ijames,
Clark McPhail, Dick Odenthal, and Jim Taylor) PennState Applied
Research Laboratory, 2001..
- ""La Estructura De La Actividad Policial En El Reino Unido"."
in L. G. Gabaldón and C. Birkbeck (eds) Policía y Fuerza Física en
Perspectiva Intercultural. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Nueva
- "Policing public order and political contention" in T. Newburn
(ed) Handbook of Policing. Collumpton: Willan, 2003, 394-421
- "In proportion: race, and police stop and search." (with Kevin
Stenson, and David Don) British Journal of Criminology vol 44, pp
- "Appraising the inclusive definition of 'violence'." (with Doug
Badger, and Ray Bull) British Journal of Criminology vol 45, pp
- “Slippery slopes and civil libertarian pessimism” Policing and
Society vol 15, pp 353–375, 2005.
- “Contingence Des Styles De Gestion Du Maintien De L'ordre:
L'experience Britannique” in O. Fillieule and D. della Porta (eds)
Police et Manifestants: Maintien de l’ordere et gestion des
conflicts. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences
Politiques, 2006, 43–61
- “Public order policing: then and now” in D.J. Smith and A.
Henry (eds) Transformations of Policing. Aldershot: Ashgate,
- “Terrorism and civil libertarian pessimism: continuing the
debate” Policing and Society vol 16, pp 415–421, 2007
- “Macpherson, Police Stops and Institutionalised Racism” (with
Kevin Stenson) in M. Rowe (ed) Policing Beyond Macpherson.
Collumpton: Willan, 2007
- “Cognitive interviewing” Social Research Update Issue 50,
- “Police use of force, firearms and riot–control” (with Martin
Wright) in T. Newburn (ed) Handbook of Policing (2nd edn),
Collumpton: Willan, 2008
- Entries on "Call management", "Paramilitary policing", "Police
culture", "Public order"; "Stop and search" in Dictionary of
Policing, edited by Tim Newburn and Peter Neyroud. Cullompton:
- Entries on ‘Firearms’ and ‘Searching’ in Fleming and Wakefield
The Sage Dictionary of Policing (2009)
- “Singing the same tune? International continuities and
discontinuites in how police talk about using force”, Crime, Law
and Social Change vol 52, pp 111–138, 2008.
- “Political protest and crime” in F. Brookman, H. Pierpoint, T.
Bennett, M. Maguire (eds) Contemporary Forms of Crime: Patterns,
Explanations and Responses. Collumpton, Willan, (due 2010)
- Waddington, P. A. J., Williams, Kate, Wright, Martin, and
Newburn, Tim (in press), 'Dissension in public evaluations of the
police ', Policing and Society.
Main Articles in Professional Journals and Allied
- 'The Development of Professional Competence: the Case for
Taking an "Educational" Approach to Vocational Courses for the
Police', Police Journal, 1985, vol LVIII, pp 5-16.
- 'Manpower Depletion', Policing, 1985, vol 1, no 3, pp
- 'Defining Objectives', Policing, 1985, vol 2, pp 17-25.
- 'The "Objectives" Debate', Policing, 1986, vol 2, pp
- 'Cosmetics of Public Disorder', Policing, 1988, vol 4, pp
- 'Research into the Future', in 'Beyond the Barriers Towards
2000AD', Monograph no 8, Office of International Criminal Justice,
University of Illinois at Chicago, 1990.
- ‘Crowd behaviour, crowd control, and the use of non-lethal
weapons’, with other members of the Human Effects Advisory Panel,
Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, 1
- Between January 1999 and December 2003 Professor Waddington
wrote a weekly column in Police Review that discusses issues of
topical significance. Since January 2004 this column has been
extended in length and published monthly.
- Since 2007 I have been co–editor of Policing: A Journal of
Policy and Practice, published by Oxford University
Professor Waddington has reviewed many
books on a wide variety of topics from the social psychology of
child development to political economy. In addition, he has
published a review article on the use of ethnographic methods in
police research ('Problems of ethnography: the case of the police',
Reviewing Sociology, vol 8, issue 2, 1992). Three full-length
review articles have also been published in the Times Higher
He has also acted as a 'reader' for many
leading publishers and was the independent referee for Home
Office, Police Research Group reports on assaults against police,
the use of CS spray and extended batons.
- General Editor
- Policing: a Journal of Policy and Practice, published by
Membership of Editorial
- Policing and Society, published by Routledge
Lectures, Conferences and Seminars
Professor Waddington has presented papers at
conferences or given invited lectures on 58 occasions at venues in
the United States, South Africa, Greece, France, Spain, Italy,
Canada, Switzerland, Venezuela, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New
Zealand and Oman. In addition, he has frequently lectured to
professional audiences, especially at the National Police Staff
- Invited chair of session at launch of Pioneer Links report on
civic participation, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Birmingham
Repertory Theatre, May 2007
- Invited speaker at Royal United Services Institute conference
on ‘Politics and Terrorism’, May 2007
- Invited speaker, session on ‘Stockwell: Implications for Health
and Safety’ at the Association of Chief Police Officers /
Association of Police Authorities annual conference, June 2007
- Paper, ‘A Virtuous Exception? Critiquing the Macpherson Inquiry
into the Murder of Stephen Lawrence’, British Criminology
Conference, Huddersfield, July, 2007
- Paper, ‘Police Talking About Force’, World Congress of
Criminology, Barcelona, July 2007
- Invited keynote speaker at conference on “Violence in the
Healthcare Sector”, Amsterdam, Paper “The Management and
Non-Management of Workplace Violence in the Healthcare
Environment”. 21-24 October, 2008
- ‘Overview and commentary’, invited lecture at the British
Policing, Confidence and Capability — restoring the brand. City
Forum, One Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HD. 22 January 2009.
- Invited discussant at symposium on ‘Prison Officers, Prison
Culture and Staff–Prisoner Relationships’, Institute of
Criminology, University of Cambridge, 12 March 2009
Scholarships and Awards
- Social Science Research Council Studentship (quota), University
of Leeds, 1969-70.
- Fulbright Exchange Scholar, State University of New York at
- Organising the host arrangements for a Fulbright Scholarship
for Professor Clark McPhail, University of Illinois at
- Nuffield Foundation (£500) for research on occupational
perceptions of applicants for positions as industrial managers and
- Police Foundation (£11,500) for research on police policy on
the use of force.
- Nuffield Foundation (£2000) for pilot study for research on
policing political protest in London.
- Leverhulme Trust (£17,450) for main research on policing
political protest in London.
- Nuffield Foundation (£2,170) for a pilot study of attitudes to
diet and health (jointly with Dr. M.B. Hamilton).
- Research Endowment Fund (£44,000) for research on attitudes to
diet and health (jointly with Dr. M.B. Hamilton).
- Nuffield Foundation (£4,500) for research on crowd behaviour
(together with Professor Clark McPhail)
- Research Endowment Trust Fund (£1000) for research on crowd
- Home Office (£38,000) for research into violence at work.
- Nuffield Foundation (£4,500) for research on violent and
potentially violent police–public encounters.
- Thames Valley Police (£38,000) for research on stop and search
(together with Professor Kevin Stenson)
- Matrix Knowledge Group, Consultant (£7,000) to evaluate the
collaboration between Durham Constabulary and Cleveland Police in
respect of firearms operations. (continuing)
- National Policing Improvement Agency (£69,000) leading a team
of six colleagues to translate into accessible English Campbell and
Cochrane reviews, my role being that of Managing Editor.
- Economic and Social Research Council (£94,000) Res–000–22–3571
‘Evaluating Police Behaviour — Using Video–Clips to Examine
Variations in the Public’s Evaluation of Police Conduct, September
2009 – February 2011.
Teaching and Allied Responsibilities
- Teaching responsibilities at the University of
- What is Policing? A first year compulsory module on the BSc
(Hons) Policing degree designed to explore the role of the police
and dispels myths and misunderstandings.
- Professional Police Practice. A second year compulsory module
that relies mainly scenarios to pose acute policing dilemmas.
- Politics of Protest. A third year option on politics of
- Teaching responsibilities at the University of
- Research Methods: a compulsory module for the MA in European
and International Studies with Research Training, Graduate School
of European and International Studies 1996–2006
- Policing Citizens: a third year option for undergraduate
students in Politics and International Relations. 1999–2005
- Politics of Protest: a third year option for undergraduate
students in Politics and International Relations. 1999–2006
- Study of Politics: a compulsory online second year study skills
module that has been adopted by other Schools in the University.
- Basic Sociological Techniques (B.A.) a compulsory second year
course in Sociology. 1990–1999
- Individual Social Development (2nd and 3rd year BA Honours).
- The Social Psychology of Traumatic Personal Change (MA)
- Criminal Justice: The Policing Context (MA), which was also
offered to students in the Graduate School of European and
International Studies under the title, 'Policing and Police Work'.
Examining and Related Experience.
- Professor Waddington was a member of the examining
board for the University of Leeds B.Ed. in 'Sociology of
- He revised the London University (external) degree
syllabus for 'Introduction to Sociology' and was external examiner
for that course during 1986 and 1987.
- In December 1987 he was appointed as the 'independent
member' of a panel to appoint a Senior Lecturer at the National
Police Staff College, Bramshill.
- He has acted as external examiner for postgraduate
research degrees at: Cranfield Institute of Technology
(M.Sc./M.Phil.) in Social Policy (1991); the New University of
Ulster (M.Phil.) in Social Administration (1992); University of New
England, Canberra, Australia (2002/03), University of Plymouth
(2003); internal examiner at the University of Reading (2003).
- In 1994-97 he was appointed as external examiner to the MA in
Police Studies at Portsmouth University.
- In 1995 he became the first external examiner for the
Diploma/MA in Organisational Management at the Police College,
Bramshill, validated by University of Manchester.
- He was external examiner for the MA in Criminal Justice
Studies at Queens University, Belfast in 1999-2000.
- 2001–2003 external examiner for undergraduate programmes in
Criminology at the University of Cardiff.
- Currently external examiner for MA taught programmes in
Sociology at the University of Surrey
- External assessor at Validation of the BSc (Hons) Criminal
Justice Studies and FdSc in Policing at University of Cumbria, June
Since 2000 Professor Waddington has
examined the following postgraduate research degrees:
- Free University of Berlin, Habilitation referee
New University of Ulster
Queensland University of Technology,
University of New England, Canberra,
- University of Plymouth
- Brunel University
- Oxford University, Centre for Criminology
- University of Surrey
- University of Aberdeen
- University of Cardiff
- Glamorgan University
- London School of Economics
- Loughborough University
- Honourary Director of the Central Institute for the Study of
- Director of the Policy Research Institute,
from 2006 to 2009
- Director of the History and Governance Research
Institute, from 2007 to 2009
- Warden of Windsor Hall
- Until 2005 he was Warden of a University Hall of Residence
at the University of Reading responsible for 35 staff and 350
students, and an annual budget of £1.5m that showed an operating
profit of £440K in the last financial year.
- Examinations Officer
- Since 1999 he has served as the Examinations Officer for
the Department of Politics and the Graduate School of European and
International Studies, University of Reading.
- Director of Criminal Justice Studies
- At his instigation, the Departments of Sociology and Law
at the University of Reading collaborated between 1986 and 1992 to
offer a range of postgraduate degrees in 'criminal justice' for
which he acted as Director of Studies. This involves
responsibility for admissions, publicity, examinations, and day to
day administration as well as teaching. Because this course aimed
to attract those professionally involved in the criminal justice
system, responsibility also extended to liaison with various
criminal justice agencies. This programme was eventually absorbed
into the Graduate School of European and International
- He was appointed to direct the Department of Sociology’s
Teaching Quality Assessment. This involved writing the submission,
liaising with assessors and organising the visit. The Department
received an overall assessment of 22 points, placing it in the top
ten of departments nationally. As a direct result of the success
of his department in TQA, he was appointed first to the
Faculty Teaching Quality Committee and more recently to the
University–wide Committee on Quality in Learning and Teaching. The
task of both these committees is to drive up standards of
Professor Waddington has written more than 30
articles in newspapers including The Times, The
Independent and The Daily Telegraph. Between 1999 and
2004 he published a weekly column in Police Review,
this magazine reaches a wide audience throughout the police service
In addition, he has been interviewed on a
wide variety of topics by many of the news and current affairs
programmes on BBC Radio 4, including:-
- BBC Radio 4: Today
- BBC Radio 4: The World At One
- BBC Radio 4: PM
- BBC Radio 4: The World Tonight
- BBC Radio 4: File on Four
- Radio 2 Jimmy Young Programme
- Radio 1 Newsbeat
- Radio 5 Lunchtime
- The World Service.
Professor Waddington has also been interviewed
by the domestic television channels and also on Sky TV
News. He has participated as a panelist on several
televised ‘chat shows’ including ‘UK Late’ and ‘The Judy Finnigan
Debate’. In addition, He has given many quoted interviews to
newspapers in Britain and elsewhere including:
- The Independent
- The Times
- The Sunday Times
- The Guardian
- The Daily Telegraph
- Chicago Tribune
- New York Times
- Business Day
- Toledo Blade
He has appeared on TV and radio in several
countries including, the USA, Germany, Australia, Hong Kong, and
- BBC Radio 3 ‘Nightmoves’ discussion programme on policing, May
- BBC Radio 4 ‘World Tonight’ discussion on the surveillance
society, December 2005
- BBC Radio 4 ‘Thinking Allowed’ on workplace violence, March
- Channel 4 ‘Dispatches — Ready for a Riot?’ that discussed
police public order tactics used during the G20 protests.
- Social Democratic Party Working Party on Crime and Policing,
published as a Green Paper 1984.
- Mr. John Wheeler, MP, and the Security Industries Association,
regarding false activations of automatic burglar alarms and how to
- The Prime Minister's private office, regarding policy on law
and order, May 1987.
- ICL plc on suitability of proposed management training course,
- Association of Chief Police Officer's working party on police
driver training. 1987-1989.
- Together with Dr. Robert Reiner, I submitted a memorandum of
evidence to, and appeared before, the Home Affairs Select Committee
of the House of Commons as part of their inquiry into the provision
of training for higher ranks in the Police Service (February
- Consultant to the Liberal Democratic Party's working party on
Crime and Policing, 1990-91
- Expert witness in the case of Turner v Chief Constable of the
RUC testifying on the inaccuracy of plastic baton rounds, 21-22
- Mr. R. Hadfield, chairman of the Association of Chief Police
Officers, Public Order Sub-Committee on a revised draft of the
Public Order Training Manual 1991.
- Professor Waddington participated in a seminar in which a
specially invited group of police researchers discussed police
reform with members of the Inquiry into Police Responsibilities and
Rewards (the Sheehy Inquiry), at Nottingham (12 January 1993).
- Mr. David McLean, Minister of State, Home Office on cautioning
policy (18 August 1993).
- Member of an International Panel convened by His Honour, Mr
Justice Goldstone to advise the new democratically–elected
government of South Africa on public order law and police
- US Department of Defence on the use of low–lethality weapons to
control civil populations 2000.
- Member of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in
Europe delegation to Kosovo for validating Police Training,
- Member of the Expert Advisory Panel to Her Majesty’s Chief
Inspector of Constabulary in his inquiry into the policing of the
G20 protests, 2009. Subsequently advisor to the Association of
Chief Police Officers regarding the implementation of the
recommendations made by HMCIC.