Staff Profile: Professor A J Waddington
Professor of Social Policy
Professor Waddington has researched policing and police work for over 30 years, publishing eleven books (with another planned), plus numerous articles in academic and professional journals. He has lectured to academic and professional audiences throughout Europe, North and South America, Africa and Australia. His research has focused on the police use of force, including weaponry. He has acted as an advisor to official inquiries, most recently as a member of the expert panel advising Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary in his reports on the policing of the G20 protests. Professor Waddington has recently led an ESRC–funded research project on public evaluations of police conduct using video–clips as scenarios to be discussed by focus groups — a novel methodology. He has also pioneered the use of ‘cognitive interviewing’ as a research technique and runs training sessions to familiarise researchers with this technique.
- Police Cadet and Police Constable, Birmingham City Police (1963-69)
- Research Officer (1970-73), Research Fellow (1973-74), Lecturer (1974-76), Department of Adult Education and Extramural Studies, University of Leeds.
- Lecturer (1976-1992), Reader (1992-95), Professor (1995-1999), Department of Sociology, The University of Reading
- Professor of Political Sociology (1999-2005), Department of Politics and International Relations, The University of Reading
- B.Sc. (Sociology), University of London (external), upper second division (1969).
- M.A. (Sociology), University of Leeds (1970).
- Ph.D. The Occupational Socialization of Prison Governor Grades, University of Leeds (1977)
Books and Reports
- Waddington, P. A. J., Williams, Kate, Wright, Martin, and Newburn, Tim (forthcoming), How People Judge Policing (Oxford, Oxford University Press) forthcoming.
- Waddington, P. A. J., Kleinig, John, and Wright, Martin (eds.) (2013), Professional Police Practice: Scenarios and Dilemmas (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
- What is Policing? Learning Matters, Exeter, 2010, pp112
- Waddington, P.A.J., et al. (2009), 'Singing the same tune? International continuities and discontinuities in how police talk about using force ', Crime, Law and Social Change, 52 (Special issue on Policing Talk About the Use of Force: A Comparative International Perspective), 111–38.
- The Violent Workplace, (with Ray Bull and Doug Badger) Willan, Cullompton, 2005, pp 224
- Policing Citizens, UCL Press, London 1999, pp 303
- Liberty and Order: Policing Public Order in a Capital City, UCL Press, London, 1994, pp 241.
- Calling the Police, Avebury, London, 1993, pp 220.
- Report of the Inquiry into the Police Response To, and Investigation of, Events in Boipatong on 17 June 1992. Submitted to the Commission of Inquiry Regarding the Prevention of Public Violence and Intimidation. The Honourable Justice R.J. Goldstone, Chairman. Goldstone Commission, Pretoria, 1992.
- Towards Peaceful Protest in South Africa, (Together with other members of the International Panel testifying before the Goldstone Commission) Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa, 1992, pp 197.
- The Strong Arm of the Law: Armed and Public Order Policing, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991, pp 355
- Arming an Unarmed Police, Police Foundation, London, 1988, pp 128.
- Policing, Protest and the Law, (With Patricia Leopold) Conflict Studies No 175, Institute for the Study of Conflict, 1985, pp 25.
- The Effects of Manpower Depletion During the NUM Dispute, The Police Foundation, London, 1985, pp 78.
- Are the Police Fair?, Social Affairs Unit, Research Report No 2, London, 1983, pp 20.
- The Training of Prison Governors: Role ambiguity and socialization, Croom Helm, London, 1983, pp 177.
Articles in Refereed Academic Journals and Contributions to Refereed Edited Collections
- 'The Coup D'Etat - An Application of a Systems Framework', Political Studies, vol 22, no 3, 1974, pp 299-310.
- 'Indeterminacy in Occupational Recruitment: the case of Prison Assistant Governors', Sociology, vol 16, no 2, 1982, pp 203-19.
- 'Conservatism, Dogmatism and Authoritarianism in the Police: A comment', Sociology, vol 16, 1982, pp 592-94.
- 'Black Crime, the "Racist" Police and Fashionable Compassion', in D.C. Anderson (ed), The Kindness That Kills: An Assessment of Contemporary Church Comment on Socio-Economic Affairs, SPCK, London, 1984, pp 39-50.
- 'Community Policing: A Sceptical Appraisal', in P. Norton (ed), Law and Order in British Politics, Gower, Aldershot, 1984, pp 84-99.
- 'The Role of the Police Committees: Constitutional Arrangements and Social Realities', Local Government Studies, 1984, vol 10, pp 27-42.
- 'Mugging as a "Moral Panic": A Question of Proportion', British Journal of Sociology, 1986, vol 37, no 2, pp 245-59.
- 'Towards Paramilitarism? Dilemmas in the Policing of Public Order', British Journal of Criminology (Special Issue on Policing and the Police), 1987, vol 27, pp 37-46.
- '"Overkill" or "Minimum Force"?', Criminal Law Review, 1990, October, pp 695-707
- ‘Riot Control, Minimum Force, and the British Police Tradition', in R. Morgan (ed), Policing, Organised Crime and Crime Prevention, Bristol, Bristol and Bath Centre for Criminal Justice, 1991, pp 49-74.
- '"Guardians" or "Bullies": Perceptions of the Police Amongst Adolescent Black, White and Asian Boys' (with Quentin Braddock), Policing and Society, 1991, vol 2, pp 31-45.
- '"The Case Against Paramilitary Policing" Considered', British Journal of Criminology, 1993, vol 33, no 3, pp 353-373.
- 'Public Order in Britain', in M.L. Mathews, P.B. Heymann, and A.S. Mathews (eds), Policing the Conflict in South Africa, University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 1993, pp 133-60.
- '"Dying in a Ditch": the Use of Police Powers in Public Order', International Journal for the Sociology of Law, 1993, vol 21, pp 335-353.
- "Eat, drink and be saved: the spiritual significance of alternative diets." (with Malcolm Hamilton, Susan Gregory, and Ann Walker). Social Compass 42:497-511. 1995
- 'Policing South Africa: the View from Boipatong', Policing and Society, 1994, vol 4, pp 83-95.
- 'Coercion and Accommodation: Policing Public Order After the Public Order Act', British Journal of Sociology, 1994, vol 45, no 3, September, pp 367-385.
- ‘Public Order Policing: Citizenship and Moral Ambiguity’, in F. Leishman, B. Loveday and S.P. Savage (eds), Core Issues in Policing, Longman, London, 1996, pp 114-130.
- ‘The Politics of Public Order Policing: A “Typograhical” Analysis!’, in C. Critcher and David Waddington (eds), Policing Public Order: Theoretical and Practical Issues, Avebury, Aldershot, 1996, pp 129-144.
- ‘The Other Side of the Barricades: Policing Protest’, in C. Barker and P. Kennedy (eds), To Make Another World: Studies in Protest and Collective Action, Avebury, Aldershot, 1996, 219-236
- "Contingence Des Styles De Gestion Du Maintien De L'ordre: L'experience Britannique." Pp. 86-100 in Les Cahiers de la Sécurité Intérieure. 27, Maintien de l'Ordre. Paris: Institut des Hautes Etudes de la Sécurité Intérieure, 1997.
- ‘The impotence of the powerful: recent British police weapons policy’ (with Malcolm Hamilton), Sociology vol 31, no 1, 1997, pp 91-109
- ‘Controlling Protest in Contemporary, Historical and Comparative Perspective. European University Institute Working Papers 97/6, 1997, 31pp
- ‘Controlling Protest in Contemporary, Historical and Comparative Perspective’, in D. della Porta and H.R. Reiter (eds) Policing Protest: The Control of Mass Demonstrations in Western Democracies. Minneaapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.
- ‘Both arms of the law’. The British Criminology Conferences: Selected Proceedings, British Society for Criminology website
- ‘Armed and Unarmed Policing.’ in R. Mawby (ed) Comparative Policing: Issues for the 21st Century. London: UCL Press, 1999.
- ‘Police (canteen) sub-culture: an appreciation’ British Journal of Criminology vol 39, no 2, 1999, 287–309
- ‘Swatting paramilitarism: a comment on Kraska and Paulsen’ Policing and Society, vol 9, no 2, 1999, pp 125–140
- ‘Policing the funeral’ (with Tom Laidlaw), in T. Walter (ed) The Mourning for Diana. Oxford: Berg, 1999.
- "Orthodoxy and advocacy in criminology." Theoretical Criminology vol 4, 2000, pp 93-111.
- ‘Negotiating and defining “Public Order”’ Police Practice, vol 2, nos 1-2, 2001, pp 3-14
- "Crowd Behaviour, Crowd Control, and the Use of Non-Lethal Weapons." (with John Kenny, Donald Farrer, Sid Heal, Steve Ijames, Clark McPhail, Dick Odenthal, and Jim Taylor) PennState Applied Research Laboratory, 2001..
- ""La Estructura De La Actividad Policial En El Reino Unido"." in L. G. Gabaldón and C. Birkbeck (eds) Policía y Fuerza Física en Perspectiva Intercultural. Caracas, Venezuela: Editorial Nueva Sociedad, 2003.
- "Policing public order and political contention" in T. Newburn (ed) Handbook of Policing. Collumpton: Willan, 2003, 394-421
- "In proportion: race, and police stop and search." (with Kevin Stenson, and David Don) British Journal of Criminology vol 44, pp 889–914, 2004.
- "Appraising the inclusive definition of 'violence'." (with Doug Badger, and Ray Bull) British Journal of Criminology vol 45, pp 141–164, 2004.
- “Slippery slopes and civil libertarian pessimism” Policing and Society vol 15, pp 353–375, 2005.
- “Contingence Des Styles De Gestion Du Maintien De L'ordre: L'experience Britannique” in O. Fillieule and D. della Porta (eds) Police et Manifestants: Maintien de l’ordere et gestion des conflicts. Paris: Presses de la Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, 2006, 43–61
- “Public order policing: then and now” in D.J. Smith and A. Henry (eds) Transformations of Policing. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007.
- “Terrorism and civil libertarian pessimism: continuing the debate” Policing and Society vol 16, pp 415–421, 2007
- “Macpherson, Police Stops and Institutionalised Racism” (with Kevin Stenson) in M. Rowe (ed) Policing Beyond Macpherson. Collumpton: Willan, 2007
- “Cognitive interviewing” Social Research Update Issue 50, 2007
- “Police use of force, firearms and riot–control” (with Martin Wright) in T. Newburn (ed) Handbook of Policing (2nd edn), Collumpton: Willan, 2008
- Entries on "Call management", "Paramilitary policing", "Police culture", "Public order"; "Stop and search" in Dictionary of Policing, edited by Tim Newburn and Peter Neyroud. Cullompton: Willan.
- Entries on ‘Firearms’ and ‘Searching’ in Fleming and Wakefield The Sage Dictionary of Policing (2009)
- “Singing the same tune? International continuities and discontinuites in how police talk about using force”, Crime, Law and Social Change vol 52, pp 111–138, 2008.
- “Political protest and crime” in F. Brookman, H. Pierpoint, T. Bennett, M. Maguire (eds) Contemporary Forms of Crime: Patterns, Explanations and Responses. Collumpton, Willan, (due 2010)
- Waddington, P. A. J., Williams, Kate, Wright, Martin, and Newburn, Tim (in press), 'Dissension in public evaluations of the police ', Policing and Society.
Main Articles in Professional Journals and Allied Publications
- 'The Development of Professional Competence: the Case for Taking an "Educational" Approach to Vocational Courses for the Police', Police Journal, 1985, vol LVIII, pp 5-16.
- 'Manpower Depletion', Policing, 1985, vol 1, no 3, pp 149-60.
- 'Defining Objectives', Policing, 1985, vol 2, pp 17-25.
- 'The "Objectives" Debate', Policing, 1986, vol 2, pp 225-34.
- 'Cosmetics of Public Disorder', Policing, 1988, vol 4, pp 116-129
- 'Research into the Future', in 'Beyond the Barriers Towards 2000AD', Monograph no 8, Office of International Criminal Justice, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1990.
- ‘Crowd behaviour, crowd control, and the use of non-lethal weapons’, with other members of the Human Effects Advisory Panel, Pennsylvania State University, Applied Research Laboratory, 1 January, 2000.
- Between January 1999 and December 2003 Professor Waddington wrote a weekly column in Police Review that discusses issues of topical significance. Since January 2004 this column has been extended in length and published monthly.
- Since 2007 I have been co–editor of Policing: A Journal of Policy and Practice, published by Oxford University Press.
Professor Waddington has reviewed many books on a wide variety of topics from the social psychology of child development to political economy. In addition, he has published a review article on the use of ethnographic methods in police research ('Problems of ethnography: the case of the police', Reviewing Sociology, vol 8, issue 2, 1992). Three full-length review articles have also been published in the Times Higher Education Supplement.
He has also acted as a 'reader' for many leading publishers and was the independent referee for Home Office, Police Research Group reports on assaults against police, the use of CS spray and extended batons.
Journal editorial responsibilities
- General Editor
- Policing: a Journal of Policy and Practice, published by OUP
Membership of Editorial Boards
- Policing and Society, published by Routledge
Lectures, Conferences and Seminars
Professor Waddington has presented papers at conferences or given invited lectures on 58 occasions at venues in the United States, South Africa, Greece, France, Spain, Italy, Canada, Switzerland, Venezuela, Germany, Sweden, Australia, New Zealand and Oman. In addition, he has frequently lectured to professional audiences, especially at the National Police Staff College, Bramshill.
- Invited chair of session at launch of Pioneer Links report on civic participation, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Birmingham Repertory Theatre, May 2007
- Invited speaker at Royal United Services Institute conference on ‘Politics and Terrorism’, May 2007
- Invited speaker, session on ‘Stockwell: Implications for Health and Safety’ at the Association of Chief Police Officers / Association of Police Authorities annual conference, June 2007
- Paper, ‘A Virtuous Exception? Critiquing the Macpherson Inquiry into the Murder of Stephen Lawrence’, British Criminology Conference, Huddersfield, July, 2007
- Paper, ‘Police Talking About Force’, World Congress of Criminology, Barcelona, July 2007
- Invited keynote speaker at conference on “Violence in the Healthcare Sector”, Amsterdam, Paper “The Management and Non-Management of Workplace Violence in the Healthcare Environment”. 21-24 October, 2008
- ‘Overview and commentary’, invited lecture at the British Policing, Confidence and Capability — restoring the brand. City Forum, One Whitehall Place, London SW1A 2HD. 22 January 2009.
- Invited discussant at symposium on ‘Prison Officers, Prison Culture and Staff–Prisoner Relationships’, Institute of Criminology, University of Cambridge, 12 March 2009
Scholarships and Awards
- Social Science Research Council Studentship (quota), University of Leeds, 1969-70.
- Fulbright Exchange Scholar, State University of New York at Plattsburgh (1988)
- Organising the host arrangements for a Fulbright Scholarship for Professor Clark McPhail, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1999.
- Nuffield Foundation (£500) for research on occupational perceptions of applicants for positions as industrial managers and accountants.
- Police Foundation (£11,500) for research on police policy on the use of force.
- Nuffield Foundation (£2000) for pilot study for research on policing political protest in London.
- Leverhulme Trust (£17,450) for main research on policing political protest in London.
- Nuffield Foundation (£2,170) for a pilot study of attitudes to diet and health (jointly with Dr. M.B. Hamilton).
- Research Endowment Fund (£44,000) for research on attitudes to diet and health (jointly with Dr. M.B. Hamilton).
- Nuffield Foundation (£4,500) for research on crowd behaviour (together with Professor Clark McPhail)
- Research Endowment Trust Fund (£1000) for research on crowd behaviour.
- Home Office (£38,000) for research into violence at work.
- Nuffield Foundation (£4,500) for research on violent and potentially violent police–public encounters.
- Thames Valley Police (£38,000) for research on stop and search (together with Professor Kevin Stenson)
- Matrix Knowledge Group, Consultant (£7,000) to evaluate the collaboration between Durham Constabulary and Cleveland Police in respect of firearms operations. (continuing)
- National Policing Improvement Agency (£69,000) leading a team of six colleagues to translate into accessible English Campbell and Cochrane reviews, my role being that of Managing Editor.
- Economic and Social Research Council (£94,000) Res–000–22–3571 ‘Evaluating Police Behaviour — Using Video–Clips to Examine Variations in the Public’s Evaluation of Police Conduct, September 2009 – February 2011.
Teaching and Allied Responsibilities
- Teaching responsibilities at the University of Wolverhampton
- What is Policing? A first year compulsory module on the BSc (Hons) Policing degree designed to explore the role of the police and dispels myths and misunderstandings.
- Professional Police Practice. A second year compulsory module that relies mainly scenarios to pose acute policing dilemmas.
- Politics of Protest. A third year option on politics of contention.
- Teaching responsibilities at the University of Reading:
- Research Methods: a compulsory module for the MA in European and International Studies with Research Training, Graduate School of European and International Studies 1996–2006
- Policing Citizens: a third year option for undergraduate students in Politics and International Relations. 1999–2005
- Politics of Protest: a third year option for undergraduate students in Politics and International Relations. 1999–2006
- Study of Politics: a compulsory online second year study skills module that has been adopted by other Schools in the University. 1999–2006
- Basic Sociological Techniques (B.A.) a compulsory second year course in Sociology. 1990–1999
- Individual Social Development (2nd and 3rd year BA Honours). 1977–1994
- The Social Psychology of Traumatic Personal Change (MA) 1980–1984
- Criminal Justice: The Policing Context (MA), which was also offered to students in the Graduate School of European and International Studies under the title, 'Policing and Police Work'. 1999–2004
Examining and Related Experience.
- Professor Waddington was a member of the examining board for the University of Leeds B.Ed. in 'Sociology of Education'.
- He revised the London University (external) degree syllabus for 'Introduction to Sociology' and was external examiner for that course during 1986 and 1987.
- In December 1987 he was appointed as the 'independent member' of a panel to appoint a Senior Lecturer at the National Police Staff College, Bramshill.
- He has acted as external examiner for postgraduate research degrees at: Cranfield Institute of Technology (M.Sc./M.Phil.) in Social Policy (1991); the New University of Ulster (M.Phil.) in Social Administration (1992); University of New England, Canberra, Australia (2002/03), University of Plymouth (2003); internal examiner at the University of Reading (2003).
- In 1994-97 he was appointed as external examiner to the MA in Police Studies at Portsmouth University.
- In 1995 he became the first external examiner for the Diploma/MA in Organisational Management at the Police College, Bramshill, validated by University of Manchester.
- He was external examiner for the MA in Criminal Justice Studies at Queens University, Belfast in 1999-2000.
- 2001–2003 external examiner for undergraduate programmes in Criminology at the University of Cardiff.
- Currently external examiner for MA taught programmes in Sociology at the University of Surrey
- External assessor at Validation of the BSc (Hons) Criminal Justice Studies and FdSc in Policing at University of Cumbria, June 2007
Since 2000 Professor Waddington has examined the following postgraduate research degrees:
- Free University of Berlin, Habilitation referee
New University of Ulster
Queensland University of Technology, Australia
University of New England, Canberra, Australia
- University of Plymouth
- Brunel University
- Oxford University, Centre for Criminology
- University of Surrey
- University of Aberdeen
- University of Cardiff
- Glamorgan University
- London School of Economics
- Loughborough University
Current Administrative Responsibilities
- Honourary Director of the Central Institute for the Study of Public Protection.
Previous Administrative Responsibilities
- Director of the Policy Research Institute, from 2006 to 2009
- Director of the History and Governance Research Institute, from 2007 to 2009
- Warden of Windsor Hall
- Until 2005 he was Warden of a University Hall of Residence at the University of Reading responsible for 35 staff and 350 students, and an annual budget of £1.5m that showed an operating profit of £440K in the last financial year.
- Examinations Officer
- Since 1999 he has served as the Examinations Officer for the Department of Politics and the Graduate School of European and International Studies, University of Reading.
- Director of Criminal Justice Studies
- At his instigation, the Departments of Sociology and Law at the University of Reading collaborated between 1986 and 1992 to offer a range of postgraduate degrees in 'criminal justice' for which he acted as Director of Studies. This involves responsibility for admissions, publicity, examinations, and day to day administration as well as teaching. Because this course aimed to attract those professionally involved in the criminal justice system, responsibility also extended to liaison with various criminal justice agencies. This programme was eventually absorbed into the Graduate School of European and International Studies.
Teaching Quality Assessment
- He was appointed to direct the Department of Sociology’s Teaching Quality Assessment. This involved writing the submission, liaising with assessors and organising the visit. The Department received an overall assessment of 22 points, placing it in the top ten of departments nationally. As a direct result of the success of his department in TQA, he was appointed first to the Faculty Teaching Quality Committee and more recently to the University–wide Committee on Quality in Learning and Teaching. The task of both these committees is to drive up standards of provision.
Professor Waddington has written more than 30 articles in newspapers including The Times, The Independent and The Daily Telegraph. Between 1999 and 2004 he published a weekly column in Police Review, this magazine reaches a wide audience throughout the police service and beyond.
In addition, he has been interviewed on a wide variety of topics by many of the news and current affairs programmes on BBC Radio 4, including:-
- BBC Radio 4: Today
- BBC Radio 4: The World At One
- BBC Radio 4: PM
- BBC Radio 4: The World Tonight
- BBC Radio 4: File on Four
- Radio 2 Jimmy Young Programme
- Radio 1 Newsbeat
- Radio 5 Lunchtime
- The World Service.
Professor Waddington has also been interviewed by the domestic television channels and also on Sky TV News. He has participated as a panelist on several televised ‘chat shows’ including ‘UK Late’ and ‘The Judy Finnigan Debate’. In addition, He has given many quoted interviews to newspapers in Britain and elsewhere including:
- The Independent
- The Times
- The Sunday Times
- The Guardian
- The Daily Telegraph
- Chicago Tribune
- New York Times
- Business Day
- Toledo Blade
He has appeared on TV and radio in several countries including, the USA, Germany, Australia, Hong Kong, and South Africa.
Recent substantial contributions:
- BBC Radio 3 ‘Nightmoves’ discussion programme on policing, May 2003
- BBC Radio 4 ‘World Tonight’ discussion on the surveillance society, December 2005
- BBC Radio 4 ‘Thinking Allowed’ on workplace violence, March 2007
- Channel 4 ‘Dispatches — Ready for a Riot?’ that discussed police public order tactics used during the G20 protests.
- Social Democratic Party Working Party on Crime and Policing, published as a Green Paper 1984.
- Mr. John Wheeler, MP, and the Security Industries Association, regarding false activations of automatic burglar alarms and how to minimise them.
- The Prime Minister's private office, regarding policy on law and order, May 1987.
- ICL plc on suitability of proposed management training course, December 1987.
- Association of Chief Police Officer's working party on police driver training. 1987-1989.
- Together with Dr. Robert Reiner, I submitted a memorandum of evidence to, and appeared before, the Home Affairs Select Committee of the House of Commons as part of their inquiry into the provision of training for higher ranks in the Police Service (February 1989).
- Consultant to the Liberal Democratic Party's working party on Crime and Policing, 1990-91
- Expert witness in the case of Turner v Chief Constable of the RUC testifying on the inaccuracy of plastic baton rounds, 21-22 September 1990.
- Mr. R. Hadfield, chairman of the Association of Chief Police Officers, Public Order Sub-Committee on a revised draft of the Public Order Training Manual 1991.
- Professor Waddington participated in a seminar in which a specially invited group of police researchers discussed police reform with members of the Inquiry into Police Responsibilities and Rewards (the Sheehy Inquiry), at Nottingham (12 January 1993).
- Mr. David McLean, Minister of State, Home Office on cautioning policy (18 August 1993).
- Member of an International Panel convened by His Honour, Mr Justice Goldstone to advise the new democratically–elected government of South Africa on public order law and police practice.
- US Department of Defence on the use of low–lethality weapons to control civil populations 2000.
- Member of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe delegation to Kosovo for validating Police Training, July-August, 2007
- Member of the Expert Advisory Panel to Her Majesty’s Chief Inspector of Constabulary in his inquiry into the policing of the G20 protests, 2009. Subsequently advisor to the Association of Chief Police Officers regarding the implementation of the recommendations made by HMCIC.