The Bahá’í Faith is the youngest of the world’s
On May 23, 1844, in Shiraz, Persia, a young man known as the
Báb announced the imminent appearance of the
Messenger of God.
The Faith’s founder, Bahá’u’lláh (1817 – 1892) is
regarded by Bahá’ís as the most recent in the line of Messengers of
God that stretches back beyond recorded time and that includes
Muhammad, Christ, Zoroaster, Buddha, Moses and Abraham.
He was a member of one of the great patrician families of Persia,
but after the Báb’s execution Bahá’u’lláh was subjected to
imprisonment, torture, and a series of banishments until his
eventual death near Acre.
`Abdu’l-Bahá (meaning the servant of Bahá) was the
son of Bahá’u’lláh, who appointed him the one authorized
interpreter of the Bahá’í teachings and Head of the Faith, after
his own passing.
The central theme of Bahá’u’lláh’s message is that humanity is one
single race and the day has come for its unification in one global
society. Bahá’u’lláh said that God has set in motion historical
forces that are breaking down traditional barriers of race, class,
creed and nation that will in time give birth to a universal
Bahá’ís believe that the principal challenge facing the peoples of
the earth is to accept the fact of their oneness and to assist the
process of unification.
Bahá’u’lláh taught that there is one God whose successive
revelations of His will to humanity have been the chief civilising
force in history. The agents of this process have been the Divine
Messengers who people have seen chiefly as the founders of separate
but whose common purpose has been to bring the human race to
spiritual and moral maturity.
Among the principals which the Bahá’í Faith promotes as vital to
the achievement of this goal are…
It is believed that humanity is now coming of age and it is this
that makes possible the unification of the human family and the
building of a peaceful, global society.
Today there are some five million Bahá’ís worldwide and there has
been a Bahá’í presence in the United Kingdom for more than a
Holy days and festivals are celebrated as follows…
A Bahá’í day begins at sunset. The days marked with * are those
on which followers should not work or go to school, although some
degree of flexibility can be exercised.
As has been the case in other revealed religions, the Bahá’í Faith
sees great value in the practice of fasting, as a discipline for
the soul. There is a 19 day period each year when adult Bahá’ís
fast from sunrise to sunset each day. This coincides with the
Bahá’í month of Alá (March 2 – 21).
Women who are nursing or pregnant, the aged, the sick, the
traveller, those engaged in heavy work and children under the age
of 15 years are exempt from observing the fast. Fasting is both
symbolic and a reminder of abstinence from selfish and carnal
Ayyamiha is a festival that runs from 25 February to 1 March and
which serves as a spiritual preparation to the fast, which
Instead of a Christening, Bahá’ís have a naming ceremony.
Once parental permission is obtained, a marriage takes place that
requires only the simplest of ceremonies.
In the presence of two witnesses designated by the local Bahá’í
governing council, the couple recite the following verse…
“We will all, verily, abide by the will of
Beyond this simple commitment, Bahá’ís are free to design their own
marriage celebration as they wish, depending upon personal taste,
cultural traditions and family resources.
All Bahá’ís are buried within one hour’s travel distance from their
place of death. If the deceased is over the age of 15 years, a
Prayer for the Dead must be recited.
Bahá’ís are free to leave their bodies to medical science, if
There are no special requirements for dress.
There are no special dietary requirements.
Place of Worship
Bahá’ís meet in Temples for devotional worship every 19 days, but
as yet there are none in the UK and so followers meet in each
There are no special requirements e.g. removal of footwear or
covering of the head, for people who enter a Bahá’í place of
No special requirements or restrictions exist.
Buddhism is based on the teachings of Siddhartha
Gautama (later known as Buddha), who was
born in the foothills of the Himalayas of Northern India in 563
He was the son of a Sakya nobleman and lived a life of luxury,
seeing nothing of the outside world until he was a young man. Then
he saw The Four Passing Sights i.e. death, old
age, poverty and sickness. He wanted to find a way to end suffering
by finding its cause, how to cure it and to discover the true
meaning of life, and for six years he sought different spiritual
paths including asceticism (extreme self-denial to the extent of
nearly killing himself).
Finally, through meditation and religious trance, he found
enlightenment and an end to suffering (Nirvana).
It is at this point that he became the Buddha and travelled as a
missionary for about 45 years with a community of monks and nuns,
spreading his teaching.
As Buddhism spread throughout India and Asia it developed into
several diverse schools. The most well known are
Theravada Buddhism, Vajryana (or
Tibetan) Buddhism, Zen Buddhism and
Buddhism is also well established
in most western countries.
Buddhists gather together to meditate and venerate the
Buddha. Offerings of flowers are made to images
and people may kneel before statues and light candles.
Today, there are about 330 million Buddhists worldwide, with the
majority living in the Far East and an estimated 130,000 in
Buddhists do not believe in a divine being or creator. Buddhism can
be described as a system of thought and discipline, based upon
practical advice. Buddhism maintains that life is cyclical, with
rebirth following death.
Buddhism is based on four Noble Truths:
The Eightfold Path involves:
Thus, by learning to think, behave
and meditate in a new way, a person can learn to control their
Special days are celebrated, depending on the country of
The festival of Vaisakha Puja is celebrated in the
month of Vesak, on the full moon (usually May) to commemorate the
birth, enlightenment and death of Buddha. On this day, captive
birds and fish are released as a symbol of Buddha’s love and
compassion for living things.
In many countries Buddhists hang paper lanterns and flowers in
their homes and light candles and burn incense in the temple, in
front of Buddha’s statue. On such a day, food will be taken before
noon, but not afterwards.
In addition, some days are set aside for fasting.
No particular ceremonies are performed at a child’s birth, although
monks may be invited into the home to chant texts from Buddhist
scriptures. The baby may also be taken to the temple for a naming
Traditionally, parents help their children find a suitable partner.
The marriage is not a religious occasion.
After the ceremony, the couple may either invite the monks into
their home, or go to the temple to be blessed and be given the
sermon of the Buddha’s teaching on married life. After the
blessing, a gift of food is given to the monks.
Divorce and re-marriage is rare among Chinese Buddhists in
Buddhists see death as natural and inevitable, and this is the main
theme of Buddhist funerals.
Buddhist funerals vary a great deal from one country to another and
the decision of burial or cremation is likely to be influenced by
the country of origin rather than adherence to the faith, and will
be a matter of personal preference.
For a dying Buddhist, the state of mind is an important
consideration (as with other faiths) and as much quietness as is
possible should be maintained. The dying person may welcome having
a fellow Buddhist with them to pray.
A delay of three to seven days between death occurring and the
or cremation taking place is sometimes required on principle, as
Buddhists believe that consciousness remains in the body after
premature disposal is equivalent to murder.
Buddhist monks wear robes of orange/yellow and go barefoot. They
shave their heads and traditionally carry begging bowls, in which
they receive gifts of food that other Buddhists give to them.
There is no specific code of dress for ordinary Buddhists, who wear
clothes relating to their country of origin.
Buddhists will usually be vegetarian, since their teachings are
opposed to all forms of killing. However, diet can also reflect the
country of origin and may include meat.
Place of Worship
Buddhist temples (Vihara) vary in design from one
country to another. They are usually built to symbolize the five
elements i.e. wisdom, water, fire, air and earth. All temples would
contain a statue of the Buddha.
The temple is where teaching and meditation takes place and often
has accommodation for resident monks and nuns.
Buddhists remove their shoes as a sign of respect when entering a
temple. Visitors should do the same.
There is no objection to receiving blood transfusion or organ
transplants. However, Buddhism has developed a system of dealing
with pain and ailments through meditation, rather than seeking help
from western medical practices.
Notes To Personnel
It is best not to shake hands with a Buddhist unless they offer a
handshake, as it may not be their custom.
There will normally be a statue of Buddha in the home, which is
usually in a central position. The statue may have an incense
holder at the front, and flowers and candles by its side.
There are over 6 million Christians in the United
Kingdom who regularly attend church. Many more people (whilst not
habitual churchgoers) acknowledge a belief in God and consider
themselves to be Christians.
Christians believe in one God who revealed himself as Father, Son
and Holy Spirit, referred to as the Holy Trinity.
Central to Christian belief is Jesus of Nazareth.
Christians believe that Jesus is both human and divine. As fully
human he shared everyday life, knowing our world from the inside.
As the divine Son of God (through his birth, life, death and
resurrection), he opens the way to God, whose being he
The sacred text for Christians is the Bible, which
is comprised of two books (the Old and New Testaments). The New
Testament includes a Christian code for living, based on the life
and teaching of Jesus. Interpretation and belief in the Bible
varies considerably between various denominations.
Originating in Jerusalem (now in Israel) and the surrounding area,
Christianity later spread across the world, dividing into three
broad groups i.e. Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox
and Protestant. As with many religions,
Christianity has also developed into differing denominations and
sects, which are distinguished by various differences in doctrine
In England the largest denominations are to be found with the
Church of England and the Roman Catholic
Church. Other denominations include Methodist, Baptist,
United Reform, Pentecostal and Orthodox Churches e.g. Greek,
Russian, Serbian etc.
Sunday (the day of Christ’s resurrection) remains a special day for
most Christians (set apart from the rest of the week for prayer and
reflection) and a day for attendance at church, where they pray and
celebrate together in congregations. Christians also pray
individually, or as a family.
Christians believe in the divine incarnation of Jesus, who as the
Son of God was born of a virgin birth, to redeem
humanity from sin and death. He was executed by public crucifixion
in about 29–32 A.D.
Christians also believe that he was resurrected from the dead and
then ascended to God, and that salvation is possible through faith
in Jesus Christ (and in the sacraments and teachings of the
The Bible’s Old Testament includes principles called the
Ten Commandments for all Christians.
Days that are particularly significant for Christians are
Christmas Day, Good Friday and Easter,
which commemorate respectively the birth, death and resurrection of
Jesus. Orthodox churches celebrate a few days later than the other
An important event for many congregations is the
Eucharist (Communion Service), when Christians
share bread and wine (as reminders of the sacrificial death of
Jesus by crucifixion and to celebrate his resurrection). Because of
his method of execution, the cross bears special significance for
Other important days include Ascension Day and Pentecost.
Babies are initiated into the faith by baptism, popularly called
Christening. A few denominations wait until the person is old
enough to make a commitment for him or herself. Services of
thanksgiving for the birth of a child are also growing in
Traditions relating to the naming of children will largely depend
upon the cultural background of families, but Biblical names are
still widely used.
Marriage is still widely seen as the hub of family life (although
not exclusively) and some denominations oppose contraception and
Divorce is generally accepted. There are significant restrictions
on remarriage in church, which vary between the
Because Christians believe that like Jesus, they too can be
resurrected to an afterlife with God in heaven, a person’s death
(although a sad occasion) can be viewed against this hope.
Although some denominations may stipulate a preference, the choice
of cremation or burial is usually left to the family of the
deceased. There are no stipulations as to a timescale for the
There is no specific dress code for Christians (although modesty is
generally taught) and people will therefore dress according to
their country of origin/residence.
Generally, Christians have no special dietary requirements,
although some Christian groups (few in number) observe strict rules
about their behavior, which may require them to eat separately from
Place Of Worship
Many places of worship are closed because of vandalism, theft and
the lack of clergy and therefore prior notice of visits is
Some congregations (few in number) may ask a woman to cover
Generally, most Christians accept all medical treatments. They are
likely to be more conservative that the general population
concerning the issue of abortion. The Roman Catholic Church in
particular teaches against this in most circumstances and is also
against birth control, other than through the ‘rhythm
Jehovah’s Witnesses differ from mainstream Christianity in
significant doctrinal ways, including not accepting blood
transfusions. Since 2001 there has been some modification of this
Notes To Personnel
People from all ethnic minority communities may be Christian, so
never assume what a person or a family’s religion might be, merely
from their ethnic origin. If knowing this information is relevant
to your job, asking politely will not cause offence.
When dealing with Christians, as with any other religious group,
always be sensitive to your own actions and words. Whatever their
denomination, Christians have respect and reverence for the name of
God and his son (Jesus Christ), and careless use of language e.g.
“Jesus Christ” as an expression of surprise, may cause offence.
The estimated number of people in the United Kingdom who believe in
Hinduism (Sanatan Dharma) is between 800,000 to 1
million. The majority of Hindus come from India, East
Africa, Malawi and Zambia. Others are
from Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Mauritius and Trinidad.
The word Hindu is an imposed word. The community
would more easily identify themselves with Sanatan
Dharma (Sanatan means Eternal and Dharma broadly means
doing one’s duty).
Sanatan Dharma in western terms is at least 5000 years old. This
makes it the oldest religion in the world and makes the beliefs and
practices of this faith difficult to understand and value by those
not within the faith.
There is no single holy Hindu text, but reverence is paid to the
sacred books… the Vedas (Rig Veda, Yajura Veda,
Sama Veda and Athava Veda) the Smiritis (books of law) and the
Historically, the Caste system was a relevant part of Hindu life
and was traditionally based on a person’s position in society,
through them being born into a particular caste. Today however, the
division of Hindu society by different castes has little relevance
in India (due to it being outlawed by the Constitution) and even
less in the UK. What little distinctions still exist, are fast
Colour is very important for Hindu life with red, yellow, green and
white playing significant roles in religious ceremonies. Red in
particular is a colour that is used for birth, marriage, death and
other important occasions. For women, the Bindi and Sindhur marks
on their head are made with red powder.
To give some insight into this complex faith, there are two
fundamental aspects that relate to death and suffering.
Hindus believe in one God or spirit (the Atma), who may have many
paths/ways for Hindus to reach this one God. Although God is one,
God is worshipped through various forms. God incarnates on earth in
various forms to receive Dharma.
Hindus believe in reincarnation i.e. that after death, the soul
must then travel to the Creator – Brahma. There are many cycles
that nature gives us as examples i.e. water, food. Similarly,
Hindus believe that the body is a precious gift from God in which
to house the soul, which is in constant search of the Truth.
On this journey, many thousands of lives will have to be lived and
during each life, a step up or down a ladder of evolution (plant
life, insect, animal and finally human) will have been achieved,
depending upon the good or bad actions performed. Thus, the soul is
reborn over and over again, until the point where it can return to
the creator. This point is called Moksha or release and is the
basis of a Hindu’s belief in reincarnation.
Because Hindus believe that a spirit/soul exists in all life
forms, most of them are vegetarians and believe in
The Hindu year is lunar and therefore timings of festivals may
vary. The most important ones are…
Also known as the Festival of Lights, it
celebrates the Lord Rama’s victory over the demon, King Ravana.
A nine-day festival with singing and dancing, called Ras Garba.
Follows the nine days of Navratri. Traditionally in some parts of
India the festival is concluded by burning an effigy of King
Celebrating the birth of the Lord Krishna.
When a Hindu child is born, a brief ceremony takes place where a
priest whispers prayers into the baby’s ear, and honey and ghee are
then placed on the tongue of the child.
A naming ceremony takes place shortly after birth (usually on the
sixth day). A footprint and handprint of the child’s is made on
paper and an aunt helps him/her to scribble. It is believed that
this simple act of scribbling decides the destiny of the child and
the footprints its path through life.
The mother and child are likely to stay at home for 40 days
following the birth, during which time she has a special diet to
aid her recovery.
Terms like Lal, Bhai, Shree, Shri, Chandra, Kant etc
follow/first/surnames of Hindu males.
Terms like Ben, Shrimati follow first/surnames of Hindu
Arranged marriages are common, but usually with the consent of the
couple. The marriage ceremony usually takes place in the bride’s
home town. It is performed in Sanskrit (an ancient Indian language)
and during the proceedings the couple’s clothes are tied together
and they walk around the sacred fire.
The tradition of providing a bride’s Dowry is now outlawed in
India, but is still practiced by some families. In the UK Hindus do
not generally follow this practice; instead families would help a
couple to set-up home.
Divorce is allowed, but not common.
Hindus can be cremated or buried, after a priest has conducted a
ceremony of Last Rites, but only men attend the funeral. If they
can afford it, the family may send the deceased back to their home
country for the final rites.
Traditionally, when a Hindu dies the immediate family go into
mourning, people of the same sex bathe the body, and for nine days
the family dress only in white and do not wear shoes. They sit and
sleep on the floor and eat simple foods like vegetables and rice,
cooked without spices. They do not comb their hair, cut their
nails, use soap or shampoo and the men do not shave.
When a woman’s husband dies, she removes the red powder from her
forehead/hairline and also removes all of her jewellery, including
her Shaka (an ivory bangle given to her by her
husband’s parents at the time of marriage).
Traditionally, on the tenth day the Shradha
ceremony is held and all the sons cut their nails and shave their
Traditionally, on the eleventh day, family and friends get together
to sing holy songs and have a feast.
Bereaved Hindu wives would sometimes throw themselves on their
husband’s funeral pyre to commit suicide. This practice is known as
Satti and has now almost totally disappeared from
Hinduism does not require any particular type of dress. In Britain
Hindus may wear either western or Indian style dress with many
young Hindus in particular opting to wear western dress.
Traditional South Asian Hindu women may prefer to wear Saris
(normally worn by Gujarati women) or Shalwar and Kameez (normally
worn by Punjabi women). The end of the sari may be used to cover
their heads whenever they leave the house, as a gesture of
Hindu women may have a bindi (red powder spot) on
their forehead, or if married, may also have
sindhur (red powder in the middle parting of their
Some Hindu men may wear a Kurta (pyjama
Hindus consider the cow a sacred animal and therefore do not eat
The majority of Hindus are vegetarians, who do not even eat eggs or
fish. They do eat cheese (which is vegetarian) and many avoid meals
cooked with onions and garlic, or vegetables that grow under the
Place Of Worship
Hindus worship at temples (Mandir) and, before
entering, shoes are removed and hands are washed. You may be
expected to do likewise if visiting.
There are no Hindu temples in Shropshire at present.
To save a life, a Hindu is permitted to receive blood and organ
transplants and medicines of all types.
Like Buddhists, many Hindus have learned to withstand pain and
suffering through the practice of detachment and meditation.
Notes To Personnel
Hinduism is one of the oldest religions and is found in many forms.
Therefore, the information contained in this booklet is very
general and practices may differ from one community to
It should be remembered that Hindus do not usually shake hands as a
form of greeting. Instead, the hands should be raised (palm to
palm) as if in prayer, the head slightly bowed and
‘Namaste’ spoken, or you could just say
In a Hindu home there is likely to be a room/area set-aside for
prayer, which will have a shrine where daily offerings are made to
Hindu gods. If you enter this room/area you may be asked to remove
Islam is an Arabic word, which means ‘peace’.
Islam is about a person’s whole outlook and perspective on life,
placing emphasis on forming a personal and loving relationship with
God, as well as harmonious relationships with all other people and
the environment. In this way it aims to build peace within a person
as well as between people and creation at large. This emphasis on
peace is demonstrated by the greeting of Muslims who say
‘Assalamu alaikum’ (Peace be with you) whenever
Muslim is the word for someone who follows Islam.
The majority of the approximately 2 million Muslims who live in the
UK originate from the Asian sub-continent (particularly Pakistan
and Bangladesh). There are also a sizeable number from the Middle
East, Africa, Turkey and the former Yugoslavia. However this
reflects the immigration pattern and particular history of Britain
rather than Muslim figures internationally i.e. there are actually
more Indonesian Muslims than Arab Muslims.
Islam is not confined to a particular race,
nationality or ethnicity. A simple declaration of faith and a
commitment to follow the principles of Islam is all that is
required to become a Muslim. Islam teaches that God (Allah in
Arabic) is the Lord of all people, not just Muslims. As such, He is
equally just and loving towards all people.
Today Islam and Muslims are often in the headlines, being
associated with ‘extremism’ and ‘terrorism’. Many Muslims are upset
by the stereotypes with which they are linked and which have no
bearing to the way of life which they hold dear and which actually
condemns extremism of any kind. Unfortunately, political realities
are such that there are tensions in many parts of the world – many
of them Muslim majority countries – but these relate more to issues
of land and resources such as oil, rather than ideology and
religion, as is often Portrayed. Despite this, Islam has continued
to be the fastest growing religion in the UK among the indigenous
Muslims believe that God has offered guidance to people from
different nations at different times, across the centuries, through
various prophets who taught people about God and the nature of
existence. In this way Muslims acknowledge that the essence of most
of the religions today contain the same truths, having come from
the same source. Muslims believe the Torah and Bible to be divinely
inspired books and believe the Prophet Moses and Jesus (Peace be
upon them*) to be very important and respected messengers of God.
There is therefore a very strong and respected link and continuity
between Islam, Judaism and Christianity.
* As a sign of respect Muslims say ‘Peace be upon Him’, when
referring to prophets of God.
Muhammad (Peace be upon Him) is viewed simply as
the last of a series of prophets. As with other prophets, although
he acted as a spiritual guide, he is not considered divine in any
way. He is however believed to have been given the last divine
revelation, known as the Quran (the Islamic holy
book). His life and manners are held up as examples of how it is
possible to lead a truly spiritual life connected to the Creator,
whilst meeting the demands of an earthly existence, in a just and
As with other religious traditions, Islam offers answers to most
basic questions of existence i.e.
Muslim beliefs about these important issues centre on the idea
that God created souls of all people and every single person has to
pass through various stages of life. After the soul has been
created it experiences a physical existence from the time it is in
the womb, until the time of death. After death the soul continues
to live and the state of this existence depends on the type of life
that the person has led. Hence the idea of personal choice, and how
this choice is used is very important.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _______________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Soul I Earthly E Everlasting
Created R Life A Life
From the diagram, it is clear that
Muslims believe our earthly existence is only a small part of the
ultimate journey of the self. The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon
Him) described this life as a drop of water, compared to a whole
ocean. A Muslim tries to lead a life, which continually reminds
him/her of this perspective of life, so that they can enjoy the
gift of life without forgetting the bigger picture.
Whilst Islam is a whole way of life, there are five basic tenets
(rules), which all Muslims are expected to adhere to in order to
foster and maintain their individual relationship with God and be
reminded of their duties to other people.
There are two main festivals in the 12-month, lunar-based calendar,
which are Eid ul Fitr – marking the end of fasting
during the month of Ramadan and Eid ul Adha –
which takes place at the end of the Hajj.
Other special occasions include Lailat ul Qadr
(celebrating the night the Quran was revealed to Muhammad) and
Milad ul Nabi (celebrating Muhammad’s
The Hajj takes place every year and consists of a
number of acts of worship and remembrance of God that are performed
in the company of a vast crowd. Two of the most important devotions
are the tawaaf (making circuits around the
building that all Muslims around the world face when praying,
called the Ka’ba) and the mass gathering on a
plain called Arafa to glorify God.
When a baby is born, the Azan (call to prayer) is
quietly said in its ear, to welcome the soul to life on
The birth is celebrated by inviting friends and family to a meal
called Aqiqa, and on the seventh day the baby’s
head is shaved.
The names of people will reflect their cultural and ethnic
background. There is no particular religious tradition that must be
adhered to, except that Muslims are encouraged to choose names that
have some kind of positive meaning.
Marriage is highly regarded in Islam and the nurturing of a strong
and loving husband and wife relationship is very much to be
encouraged. The Quran describes the husband and wife as being like
“garments to one another” thereby offering each other warmth,
protection and intimacy.
Under Islamic law, both parties must enter marriage freely. Forced
marriages are not allowed and are considered invalid. However,
arranged marriages in which families help to introduce couples to
each other, are allowed, so long as both the bride and groom are
happy. Indeed the coming together of two families as well as the
happy couple is encouraged.
It is important to remember that cultural practices vary across the
world and Islam does not impose any one tradition, so Muslim
weddings will be different, reflecting people’s different
backgrounds. The emphasis is simply on a committed and faithful
The marriage ceremony (Nikah) itself is very
simple, in which the commitment and consent of both parties is
witnessed in public. The groom gives the bride a present
(Meher). The idea of dowries, in which the bride’s
family or the groom’s family are obliged to give gifts or money are
forbidden, as these are in effect a ‘bride price’.
Divorce is permitted under Islamic law. A process of reconciliation
is outlined in the Quran, in which the couple, family and friends
are encouraged to do their utmost to hold the marriage together.
However, Islam recognises that divorce is sometimes the better
option for the people concerned and in these circumstances stress
the importance of letting each other go, with dignity and
At this sad time, Muslims console one another by repeating a verse
from the Quran which says “From God we come and to Him we return”
upon meeting the grieving person. In this way they draw comfort
from the fact that the soul has returned to God (death being a
gateway to the next stage of the journey of life that everyone is
believed to be following), and that ultimately people will be
The deceased is washed with care and respect and the body is
wrapped in a white shroud. Burial takes place as soon as possible
after death. Simplicity with the coffin and gravestone is
encouraged. People gather to say prayers for the deceased’s soul,
who is believed to be aware of these final farewells.
An important point for personnel to consider is that Muslims place
great emphasis on handling the dead person with extreme care and
gentleness, believing that awareness is still present. This point
should thus be borne in mind in situations that may involve
Islam encourages modesty in dress for both men and women in public
places. The purpose of wearing modest clothing is to take away the
emphasis of trying to appear physically attractive to the opposite
sex, so that interactions between men and women are more about who
they are and what they think, rather than what they look like.
Within the home however, attractive clothing is encouraged for both
husband and wife, as their physical aspects and desires can be
freely expressed within the marriage.
As long as they are covered, Muslims are free to wear whatever they
like. This is reflected in the very different types of clothes worn
by Muslim people around the world. Thus a Muslim living in England
will feel equally comfortable in a suit and tie, or a
salwar kameez (the traditional clothing of the
Indian subcontinent, consisting of loose trousers and a long
overshirt). A Muslim woman may wear a skirt or
sari. Thus there is no formal dress code in Islam
– it is the principle of modesty that is stressed.
Many Muslim women feel more comfortable wearing a
hijab (headscarf), sometimes coupled with a veil
(nicab) and overcoat (juba). As
with any other aspect of faith, personal choice is important – the
Quran states that “there is no compulsion in religion”. Hence any
coercion in dress or any other matter is forbidden.
Practising Muslims adhere to strict dietary requirements. The terms
Halal and Haram are frequently
used in connection with food.
Halal meat comes from correctly
slaughtered animals. Examples of Halal food are all kinds of fish,
vegetables and fruits. Lambs, cows and chickens are only considered
Halal if they have been correctly slaughtered under Islamic Law
(there is a Halal slaughter-house at Craven Arms). Halal foods are
never to be mixed with Haram foods, either in preparation or in
Examples of Haram food are meat from the pig (and related
products), any form of animal fat (lard), carnivorous animals,
rodents, reptiles and fish that have no scales (some Muslims do eat
shellfish). Alcohol in any form is forbidden to strict
Apart from those items that have been forbidden, everything else is
considered Halal (permissible). As with dress and other customs,
Muslims will vary in the types of food that they eat, depending on
which country they come from. For example, it is equally ‘Islamic’
to eat fish and chips as to eat curry and chipattis, as all of
these are Halal.
Place Of Worship
A typical Mosque has a large prayer room that has no chairs or
benches, a pulpit for teaching and a lectern for the Quran. Some
Mosques may also have a minaret, which is a tower used for calling
the faithful to prayer. Outside the main prayer room there will be
running water for people to wash before prayer and there may be
separate entrances for men and women. Midday on Friday is the
busiest time, as all Muslim men must congregate at the Mosques for
Muslim men tend to cover their heads for prayer and women should
cover their head, arms and legs. Within some Mosques there may be a
school for educating young scholars and where they can read the
Quran and gain a greater understanding of Islam. Women are also
encouraged to attend the Mosque for prayers, as the sense of
community is important in Islam.
You would be expected to remove your shoes when entering a mosque
and may be asked to cover your head.
In Islam, all life-saving considerations take precedence over
Islamic religious duties.
All medical treatment, such as blood transfusion, surgery or
administering of drugs is allowed.
Notes To Personnel
Whilst an attempt to summarise some Islamic beliefs and practices
has been made here, it is important to remember that everyone is
different and people will differ in the extent to which they
practice the faith. Some will strictly adhere to the tenets, and
others will choose not to practice at all.
As with any human interaction, genuineness and good intentions are
what matter. Hence, personnel should not fear giving offence if
their knowledge of Islam is not comprehensive. In an emergency
situation, personnel will be known to be acting only in the safety
interest of people.
In social situations, personnel will most certainly be received
with respect and friendliness, and any questions or curiosity
regarding Islam or particular traditions, will be welcomed.
Judaism is a religion dating back over 4000 years
to God’s call to Abraham. The descendants of
Abraham were subsequently enslaved in Egypt and then freed through
God’s chosen prophet – Moses. After receiving the
Ten Commandments from God whilst at Mount Sinai,
Abraham’s descendants settled in the land of Israel.
There are few countries in the world that do not have Jewish
communities, from large ones such as the USA (about 5 million), the
UK (about 350,000) to small ones such as New Zealand (about 6,000).
The Jewish population of the State of Israel is about 6
The Jewish holy books are the Torah that contains
the five books of Moses (including the Ten Commandments) and the
rest of the ‘Old Testament Bible’ and rabbinic writings, explaining
the laws and commandments. Because originally the Torah and Bible
were written in the Hebrew language, Jews are still taught to read
and speak Hebrew.
As an ancient religion, Judaism predates Christianity and Islam,
and none of their festivals or divergent beliefs are to be found in
Judaism. Therefore, Jews do not celebrate Christmas, Easter, Eid
In the UK Jews are likely to be either…
The Sabbath (the Jews most holy day of the
week) begins at sunset on Friday and until dusk on Saturday.
Commanded by scripture in the book of Genesis, it commemorates the
seventh day when God rested after creating the world. During this
period, very Orthodox Jews do not ‘work’ i.e. travel, use the
phone, write, use electrical equipment or cook. The same
restrictions apply on festivals for which no bread or other food
containing a leaven product (or by-product) is eaten.
Jews believe there is one Eternal Sovereign God for the whole
world. There are no images, pictures or statues in synagogues or
Jews also believe that Moses was the chief prophet, followed by
people who wrote books in the Bible. With the close of the ‘Old
Testament’ prophesy stopped. They do however believe in the coming
of a messiah, chosen by God when He wishes.
The Jewish belief in God is contained in the prayer/commandment
called the Shema which is recited twice a day
using the words “Hear O Israel, the Lord our God, the Lord is One”.
Jewish practice is founded on two other commandments that are found
in the Torah… “Love the Lord your God” and “Love your neighbour as
Because the Jewish day starts in the evening, it affects the timing
of their festivals. Some principal ones are as follows…
All male babies are circumcised by a Mohel (a Jewish medical
practitioner) on the 8th day of life (if they are fit and well), as
this is when blood coagulates more readily. It may be delayed if
they are jaundiced or unwell.
Jewish boys are given their Hebrew name at the same time that they
are circumcised. Girls are likewise given a name at the
Jewish marriage can only take place when both parties are Jews, and
they enter into marriage freely. If a Jewish woman marries/lives
outside the faith, her children are still considered to be Jewish,
but if a Jewish man marries/lives outside the faith, his are not,
because the bloodline goes through the woman. The Reform movement
is a little more flexible in the definition of ‘Jewish’.
The wedding takes place under a canopy called a
Huppah where the groom places a ring on the
bride’s index finger. He then presents her with a contract of what
he will do for her. The bride makes no vows on her wedding day. The
rabbi simply supervises the event, ensuring that it fulfils the
requirements of Jewish law.
A number of blessings are then sung and the bride and groom share a
cup of wine before the groom stamps on the glass (as a reminder of
the fragility of human life and the destruction of the temple of
Abraham), then everyone shouts Mazel Tof (good
luck). A feast follows.
Divorce is permitted under Jewish Law, as is the re-marriage of
both parties. The religious divorce (get) has to be given by the
husband and be accepted by the wife.
A dying person may wish to say the Shema
Jewish law requires the dead body to be treated with every
reverence and respect. A post mortem is allowed, if required.
Otherwise, no disfigurement of the body is allowed, other than for
A rabbi must be contacted if death is as a result of a fire,
accident etc. Parts of a body must be treated with the same
reverence accorded to a whole body. If it is possible, they should
remain with the body, as Jewish law requires that all body parts
(including blood specks) are collected and buried. The correct
identification of bodies is very important, and has particular
relevance for the subsequent position of a widow under Jewish
Orthodox Judaism forbids cremation, but Reform Judaism does permit
it. Burial takes place as soon as possible after death (preferably
within 24 hours, before sunset on the day of death). However,
funerals do not take place on the Sabbath or on major festival
dates. The coffin will be made of the simplest of materials, with
rope handles, and with no embellishment or nameplate.
The closest blood-relatives (including husband/wife) observe a week
of mourning in the home, with services conducted there, including
prayers for the soul of the deceased, memorial prayers and
Some Orthodox men and women avoid physical contact between the
sexes and therefore comforting by means of touching would not be
Whilst most Jewish people dress in the same way as their non-Jewish
neighbours, some Jews retain the traditions of the Jewish
communities of the middle-ages or eastern Europe i.e. men wear dark
clothing, consisting of long coats and a wide brimmed black hat. A
fringed prayer shawl called a tzitzith is worn on
top of their clothes as a reminder of the Commandments (it is also
worn by some Jewish women). They will probably also have their hair
in side locks and have an uncut beard.
Jewish men are required to have their heads covered when in the
Synagogue and this is usually accomplished by wearing the
kippah/kappel (skull cap). Some Jewish men wear
their skull cap at all times.
Some married women wear a wig or have their head covered and also
keep their arms covered. However, most UK Jews are not part of this
community and these comments would not apply.
The faith of Judaism sets out as part of its rules for life, strict
dietary laws known as the Kashrut. Depending on
the religious beliefs that communities follow, these rules may
Orthodox Jews will be strict about dietary laws, to the extent of
only eating in orthodox homes, or restaurants under rabbidic
supervision. Conservative Jews may keep some of the restrictions
and Reform Jews would be less so; or even non-observant. Some Jews
will even keep ‘Kosher’ homes, but be flexible when eating
Certain animals, birds and fish are either Kosher
(permitted) or Treif (forbidden) as
Jewish law forbids the mixing of meat and dairy foods e.g. they
cannot eat cheese-burgers. Neither may milk products be eaten
directly after a meat meal and therefore, most observant Jews will
wait at least 3 hours before dairy foods or drinks containing milk
Because of these rules, great care is taken in the preparation of
food, with separate dishes kept for both meat and milk
Place Of Worship
As with other faiths, Jewish people can pray anywhere, but Jews
tend to come together to pray and study or just to meet as a
community, in synagogues.
In Orthodox synagogues, men and women sit separately with the women
often sitting in an upstairs gallery, or in a separate area, with
see-through curtains. In Conservative and Reform synagogues, men
and women sit together.
There is usually a main prayer hall containing the
Ark (a cupboard that is the central feature of a
synagogue, containing the holy hand written Torah scrolls), which
is situated on the eastern wall, facing the holy city of Jerusalem.
They are taken out and carried in procession to a central desk –
the Bimah, where the portion of text for the
Sabbath/Festival is read.
Above the Ark is an ‘eternal lamp’ known as the Ner
Tamid (representing the fire on the altar in the Jerusalem
Temple), which is permanently lit. There might also be (although
not always) a multibranched candelabrum called a
Menorah in the synagogue, which is like the one
used in the Jerusalem Temple.
Many synagogues have a Rabbi (it may be a woman in
some cases), who teaches the community about interpretation of the
Torah and Talmud. Prayers are held in Synagogues three times a day
and men and women share these prayer times, but may be in separate
parts of the same room during the service.
In Orthodox synagogues the service is almost entirely in Hebrew,
whilst in Conservative and Reform synagogues a greater proportion
of the service would be in English.
All Jewish men must cover their heads whilst in the synagogue and
many Orthodox Jewish men will wear a prayer shawl and
Phylacteries(small leather containers holding
biblical texts) fixed to their left arm and foreheads while at
Non-Jews are welcome to visit a synagogue and may be asked to wear
some form of head covering. Both sexes should ensure that they are
Prayer books are usually printed in both Hebrew and English.
On the Sabbath or during festivals, all Jewish laws, such as not
travelling etc. may be put aside in order to save life. Any
treatment deemed necessary can be carried out without delay.
Notes To Personnel
At 13 years of age a Jewish boy becomes a man in the eyes of his
community and on the nearest Sabbath to the boy’s birthday, his
barmitzvah takes place.
The bar-mitzvah is not the ceremony itself, but the person. The
term means “Son of the Commandment”. At the celebration held in the
synagogue, the boy will read a portion of the Torah aloud, in
Hebrew. A party then follows the ceremony.
The bar-mitzvah (and for girls, bat-mitzvah) was developed from the
need that was common amongst all ancient peoples, to mark the point
at which a child becomes adolescent and can therefore be admitted
to the adult community.
If you are visiting an Orthodox Jewish home, you should remember
that any kind of physical contact between people of opposite sexes
might be considered to be inappropriate.
To the vast majority of Jews today, Israel is a very important
element of Judaism. The land of Israel is regarded as the historic
homeland of the Jews, where both Temples stood i.e. the first built
by Solomon in about 1000 BC and destroyed by the Babylonians in
about 586 BC… and the second built in 520 BC and destroyed by the
Romans in 70 AD.
There have always been Jewish people living in Israel, even if they
were only small communities and under the different kingdoms that
ruled the land. The establishment of the State of Israel in 1948
was a great moment in Jewish history, coming as it did after the
Nazi Holocaust, when some 6 million Jews were brutally
Rastafarianism is a way of life (belief system) that is guided by
the concept of peace and love. It is a world movement, with a
strong core of people who are of African/Caribbean descent and who
identify with the ongoing struggle to reclaim their African
Its name comes from Ras (Prince)
Tafari (a direct descendant of Kings Solomon and
David), who became Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia.
In the early 1920s, Marcus Garvey was an
influential black spokesman and founder of the “back-to-Africa”
movement. He often spoke of the redemption of his people coming
from a future black African king. On one occasion, Garvey
proclaimed, “Look to Africa for the crowning of a Black
King, he shall be the Redeemer”. Only a few years later
that prediction was fulfilled in the person of Haile Selassie, who
is recognised by Rastas as Jah (the living manifestation of
The Rasta belief system has gone on to be adopted by wider cultural
groups. Such organisations include the Ethiopian Orthodox Church,
the Ethiopian World Federation, the Universal Rastafarians
Improvement Organisation, the Twelve Tribes of Israel and the
Rastafarian Universal Zion. As with other ways of life/faiths, not
all Rastas are affiliated to a particular group or
In Britain, there are established Rasta groups within most cities
and large towns such as London, Birmingham, Leicester, Luton and
Bristol. It is estimated that there are in the region of 100,000
Rastafarians in the UK.
All days of the week are considered to be holy, but some groups
appoint special holy days such as the Sabbath that
is often attributed to a Saturday or Sunday.
The shape of the hands when praying is a symbol for both peace and
war, as it represents both the heart and a spear. Worship takes
place continually, with followers usually gathering together at
least once per week (depending on the practices of the individual
Rastafarians believe that Jah resides in each person, and there is
a sense of oneness between each other and Jah. The often heard
reference to ‘I and I’ refers to ‘the self within
the self’ and the continual conversation that permeates each
individual thought, through the subconscious.
Rastas are guided by the culture and traditions of Africa and the
Caribbean, and believe that salvation can come to black people only
through repatriation to Africa (the Black Zion), after liberation
from the evils of the western world (sometimes referred to as
Rastafarian beliefs are derived from a very detailed reading of the
Kebra Negast (the Ethiopian Bible) and the
Christian Bible, (especially the Old Testament and Book of
Revelations – the last part of the New Testament).
Music is important to Rastafarians. Reggae music
has often expressed their struggle for liberation and is an
important medium through which culturally specific social issues
are projected. Music, drumming (the instrument rooted in African
traditional music) and dancing, can all form part of the act of
For many Rastafarians, smoking marijuana (Ganja)
is an important part of worship and a ritual aid for meditation, as
mentioned in the Bible – Psalms 104:14. It is seen as natural and a
gift from God that is also used in cooking and medicine. There is
disparity with the usage of marijuana, with some Rastas abstaining
all together. Fasting is practised by Rastas, but there is no
specific requirement for them to do so.
The Rastafarian year is generally based on the Ethiopian calendar.
Important dates are…
Generally, Rastafarian children are blessed by the elders and
congregation accompanied by drumming, chanting and prayers.
Rastas recognise and place value on the institution of marriage.
However, the community would automatically view a man and a woman
who co-habit as husband and wife.
The issue of women’s equality (in relation to their involvement in
the family decision making process) is a topic that is subject to
rapid change. Within the traditional context of Rastafarianism, the
role of men and women is similar to that of some parts of Judaism
and Islam, with women having some restrictions.
Rastas believe in the celebration of life and therefore abortion
and birth control are both opposed.
Rastafarians believe that life is eternal. Moving from one
spiritual state of existence to another, through life on earth, to
an eventual life in God’s spiritual kingdom.
Depending on individual belief, there are special arrangements
and/or ceremonies originating in African and the Caribbean,
Rastafarians often keep their hair covered.
Men (brethren) may wear knitted, leather or cloth Tams, whilst
women (sistren) often cover their hair with a cloth wrap or
Their hair often remains uncut and uncombed (biblical reference)
thus forming dreadlocks (a style worn by Haile Selassie as a young
The colours red, gold, green and black may be reflected in clothes
The traditional Rastafarian diet is based upon eating I-tal food
i.e. food that is unpreserved, unsalted, fresh and seasoned with
fresh herbs. However, it is recognised there is diversity in many
individuals’ diet today.
Many Rastas are vegetarian, but even those who do eat meat are
unlikely to eat pork or shellfish (biblical reference).
Strict Rastas avoid stimulants such as alcohol, tea and
Place Of Worship
Meetings are normally held weekly in a community centre or at
someone’s home and include worship and the discussion of community
matters as well as chants, prayers and singing, to the rhythm of
Some meetings (known as Nyabingi) are a gathering
of Rastafarians principally for discussion, but which can also
Women normally cover their heads during a meeting, but particularly
so when the congregation is praying.
There are no restrictions regarding medical treatment, but
Rastafarians have an inherent distrust of institutions (which could
affect their attitude to medical treatment), based on their
historical association with the State.
Notes To Personnel
The influence of Rastafarianism on Jamaican societal life has been
very significant. As a result, it is difficult (at first glance) to
always ascertain where Rastafarianism ends and Jamaican culture
Many Rastafarians communicate in a particular lyrical manner, based
on the usage of Jamaican patois, often using the first person
singular (I) as a prefix e.g. a Rasta might refer
to “I man… I don’t” etc. It is
however, perfectly possible to understand the sentence formulation
if the listener actively listens, without prejudging on the basis
of traditional English grammar. However, to someone not used to
this form of language, communication could prove difficult.
All the above information may vary from individual to individual
and may be influenced by locality, or affiliation to a particular
Most Sikhs living in the United Kingdom are of
Indian (Punjabi) origin, having come either
directly from the Punjab region, or via former British colonies
(e.g. those in East Africa, South East Asia etc.) to which members
of their family had previously migrated.
Both Punjabi and English languages are widely spoken and used
within the community.
Sikhs worship at temples called Gurdwaras. The
first UK temple was established in Putney, in 1911. There are
around 200 Gurdwaras in the UK, serving the largest Sikh community
The link with the UK has been a long one. Renowned for their
bravery and martial tradition, many Sikhs served in the British
military and gave their lives for the British Empire in the First
and Second World Wars.
The Sikh faith is a distinct religion revealed through the
teachings of the ten Gurus (Guru means spiritual
teacher), the first of whom, Guru Nanak Dev Ji,
was born in 1469 CE in Lahore, which is now in Pakistan.
The Gurus were the Divine Light who conveyed
Gurbani (word of God) and were spiritually all
one. The tenth Guru vested the spiritual authority in the
Guru Granth Sahib Ji (the Sikh holy book) and
temporal authority in the Khalsa Panth (the
community of baptized Sikhs).
Sikhs believe that there is one supreme God for all people, not
just Sikhs. God is regarded as Nirgun
(transcendent), Sargun (immanent), Nirankar
(formless) and Akal (eternal).
The object of a Sikh’s life is to develop God-consciousness and
ultimately receive God’s grace. Human life presents the opportunity
to do this by realising the will and love of God through truthful
living and Seva (dedication to service), in the
context of a normal family life.
Set prayers are said daily, in the morning, evening and at night,
before going to sleep. Prayers can be said individually, together
as a family, or collectively at any suitable place, although
congregational worship at a Gurdwara is regarded as very
Prohibitions for baptised Sikhs include tobacco, alcohol,
intoxications, adultery, etc.
Sikh men and women, particularly those who have taken
Amrit (been baptised), always wear the following
articles of faith that are popularly known as the Five
All of the 5 Ks have a deep spiritual and moral significance,
forming part of Rahit Maryada (the Sikh code of
ethics and discipline).
Although not mentioned among the Five Ks, Dastaar
(the turban) is worn to maintain the sanctity of the
Kesh (hair) and is treated with the utmost
respect. Whilst obligatory for men, the turban is optional for
women who may instead use a Chunni (a long Punjabi
scarf) to cover their heads. Young boys wear their hair in a
handkerchief sized Rumal or
The Khanda is the symbol of Sikhism and is to be
found on the Sikh flag (Nishan Sahib). It is made
of three elements.
The Nishan Sahib can be found flying outside all Gurdwaras on a
tall flagpole and is triangular in shape and yellow or saffron in
There are many Sikh festivals, but the most important are…
As soon as a Sikh baby is born, the beginning of the Guru Granth
Sahib (the holy book) is recited as a blessing. This is known as
the Mool Mantar. The child is traditionally given
a name beginning with the first letter of a hymn on the page that
the Guru Granth Sahib is randomly opened.
A Sikh is likely to have a personal name (common to both sexes), a
middle name Singh for all males and
Kaur for all females, followed by a family name
(surname). In some cases and in keeping with tradition, the family
name is not used, in which instance Singh or Kaur may be regarded
as the surname. Therefore, the husband will be Mr Singh and his
wife, Mrs Kaur.
Sardar and Sardarni are titles
prefixed to the Sikh male and female names respectively. Therefore
if these traditional titles are used, Mr and Mrs should not be used
at the same time.
In Britain arranged marriages are still common and are preferably
based on the two people being from a similar background. The
practice of offering a Dowry has no place in Sikh traditions, but
families would help a couple to set-up home.
A Sikh priest performs the religious marriage ceremony (which is
generally held at the Gurdwara). The highlight of the wedding is
the four vows, spoken and sung as the groom leads his bride four
times in a clockwise direction around the Guru Granth Sahib. Every
time that the couple go around the Guru Granth Sahib, they
undertake a solemn vow. When all four vows are completed, the
couple are considered married.
Divorce is accepted, although it is against a Sikh’s religious
beliefs, as marriage is regarded as a sacrament. Divorcees are
however allowed to re-marry in the Gurdwara.
When male Sikhs die, they are usually dressed in their best western
or traditional clothes (this may or may not include a turban).
Women may be dressed in white, in line with tradition.
All Sikhs are cremated (along with the Five Ks) and traditionally,
their ashes are taken to a river in Kirtpur in India to be
During a period of mourning, Sikhs tend to wear pale items of
According to Sikh etiquette, comforting a member of the opposite
sex by physical contact e.g. touching or hugging, should be avoided
unless the persons are closely related. Even then for instance, a
married couple would not do so (or display any affection) in
Most traditional Sikh men wear a turban, as will some Sikh women.
But it should be remembered that although it has become an
important symbol of the Sikh faith, not all turban wearers are
Sikhs, as people from other faiths may also wear a form of the
Sikh women traditionally wear Shalwar and Kameez (loose trousers
with a long top) and scarf, a Sari, or western dress.
Observant Sikhs (especially those who are baptised) are likely to
be vegetarians. They will also exclude from their diet eggs, fish
and any food containing these, or any animal derivatives as
ingredients; or foods cooked in animal fats. Dairy produce is
acceptable, so long as it is free from meat products e.g. rennet in
Sikhs believe that a balance of moderation and temperance should be
exercised as a way of life, both for spiritual reasons and for the
maintenance of good health. Sikhism does not attach any importance
to the practice of fasting, as it believes that it has no religious
Place Of Worship
When visiting a Gurdwara and before entering the
worship room, you will be expected to cover your head, remove your
shoes and wash your hands.
It would be appreciated if you then went forward to bow to the holy
book (the Guru Granth Sahib). Offerings can be made, but are not
If invited to eat at the Gurdwara (most of which operate a
Langar [kitchen]), you should not offer to pay for
the food, as it is free for everyone, but you could make a donation
to the Gurdwara prior to departure. If you do eat, your head must
There is no religious objection to post mortem, organ transplant,
blood transfusion, or other form of western medicine, on religious
If the situation arises where for operational reasons a Sikh’s hair
needs to be cut, consultation needs to take place with the
individual or other Sikhs who may be present.
Notes To Personnel
If you enter a Sikh home you may be asked to remove your shoes and
to cover you head. Families will only require this if you enter a
room where the Guru Granth Sahib is kept.
Although prayer can take place at anytime, try to avoid visiting
the home at dawn, early evening or last thing at night.
A Sikh woman may feel more comfortable being spoken to by a male
member of staff, if family members are present.
Please do not take cigarettes, alcohol or other intoxicants (other
than medicines) on to the premises, as this would cause
University of Wolverhampton, Wulfruna Street, Wolverhampton, WV1 1LY
Course enquiries: 0800 953 3222, General enquiries: 01902 321000 | Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Freedom of Information | Disclaimer and copyright | The University as a charity | Cookies Policy